Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences

Living Edition
| Editors: Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Todd K. Shackelford

Defense Style Questionnaire

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_22-1
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Synonyms

DSQ

Definition

Defense styles are empirically validated clusters of psychological defense mechanisms, measured with the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ). The DSQ is a paper-pen, self-report questionnaire, with two versions containing either 88 or 40 items. Each item is a statement that the subject scores according to the degree of agreement to its content on a Likert-type interval scale, with scores ranging from one (total disagreement) to nine (full agreement).

Introduction

The concept of character defenses hails from the early days of psychoanalysis; according to Anna Freud, they form “the ways and means by which the ego wards off displeasure and anxiety, and exercises control over impulsive behavior, affects and instinctive urges” (Freud 2011). Although defenses have been defined and differentiated for some time, their unconscious nature made their empirical measurement difficult. To this end, the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) was developed to assess defense styles...

Keywords

Personality Disorder Primitive Idealization Defense Style Individual Defense Immature Defense 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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References

  1. Bond, M. (1992). An empirical study of defensive styles: The Defense Style Questionnaire. In Ego mechanisms of defense: A guide for clinicians and researchers (pp. 127–158). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  2. Bond, M. (2004). Empirical studies of defense style: Relationships with psychopathology and change. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 12(5), 263–278.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bond, M., Gardner, S. T., Christian, J., & Sigal, J. J. (1983). Empirical study of self-rated defense styles. Archives of General Psychiatry, 40(3), 333.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bond, M., Christopher, J., Gautier, M., Goldenberg, M., Oppenheimer, J., & Simand, J. (1989). Validating the self-report of defense styles. Journal of Personality Disorders, 3(2), 101–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chabrol, H., Rousseau, A., Rodgers, R., Callahan, S., Pirlot, G., & Sztulman, H. (2005). A study of the face validity of the 40 item version of the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40). The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 193(11), 756–758.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Freud, A. (2011). The ego and the mechanisms of defence. London: Karnac Books.Google Scholar
  7. Thygesen, K. L., Drapeau, M., Trijsburg, R. W., Lecours, S., & De Roten, Y. (2008). Assessing defense styles: Factor structure and psychometric properties of the new Defense Style Questionnaire 60 (DSQ-60). International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 8(2), 171–181.Google Scholar
  8. Vaillant, G. E., Bond, M., & Vaillant, C. O. (1986). An empirically validated hierarchy of defense mechanisms. Archives of General Psychiatry, 43(8), 786–794.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.2nd Department of PsychiatryAristotle University of ThessalonikiThessalonikiGreece

Section editors and affiliations

  • Brendan Clark
    • 1
  1. 1.Wichita State UniversityWichitaUSA