Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences

Living Edition
| Editors: Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Todd K. Shackelford

Dark Personality Features and Employment

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_2094-1



Dark personality traits such as narcissism, Machiavellanism, and psychopathy have been shown to impact work-related outcomes. The impact is predominantly negative; however, particular features also provide certain advantages both to employees and organizations.


The term “dark personalities” or “dark personality traits” refers to a set of traits that are socially maladaptive, aversive, undesirable, and malevolent, but not enough so to be considered clinical-level pathology. A social psychology account emphasizes their maladaptiveness in terms of a negative influence on interpersonal relationships, including maximizing personal gains at the expense of others, callousness (Jones and Paulhus 2011), low empathy (Paulhus and Williams 2002), and low commitment to moral values (Jonason et al. 2015). A significant amount of research on the dark...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.



The present work was supported by grant no. 2015/19/B/HS6/02214 from the National Science Center, Poland, awarded to the first author.


  1. Abeyta, A. A., Routledge, C., & Sedikides, C. (2017). Material meaning: Narcissists gain existential benefits from extrinsic goals. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 8, 219–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ames, D. (2009). Pushing up to a point: Assertiveness and effectiveness in leadership and interpersonal dynamics. Research in Organizational Behavior, 29, 111–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ames, D. R., Rose, P., & Anderson, C. P. (2006). The NPI-16 as a short measure of narcissism. Journal of Research in Personality, 40, 440–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ashkanasy, N. M., Windsor, C. A., & Treviño, L. K. (2006). Bad apples in bad barrels revisited: Cognitive moral development, just world beliefs, rewards, and ethical decision-making. Business Ethics Quarterly, 16, 449–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Austin, E. J., Farrelly, D., Black, C., & Moore, H. (2007). Emotional intelligence, Machiavellianism and emotional manipulation: Does EI have a dark side? Personality and Individual Differences, 43, 179–189.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2003.10.071.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Babiak, P., & Hare, R. D. (2006). Snakes in suits: When psychopaths go to work. New York: HarperCollins.Google Scholar
  7. Babiak, P., Neumann, C. S., & Hare, R. D. (2010). Corporate psychopathy: Talking the walk. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 28, 174–193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Back, M. D., Schmukle, S. C., & Egloff, B. (2010). Why are narcissists so charming at first sight? Decoding the narcissism–popularity link at zero acquaintance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98, 132–145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Blair, C. A., Hoffman, B. J., & Helland, K. R. (2008). Narcissism in organizations: A multisource appraisal reflects different perspectives. Human Performance, 21, 254–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Blau, P. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  11. Blickle, G., Schlegel, A., Fassbender, P., & Klein, U. (2006). Some personality correlates of business white-collar crime. Applied Psychology, 55, 220–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Böckler, A., Sharifi, M., Kanske, P., Dziobek, I., & Singer, T. (2017). Social decision making in narcissism: Reduced generosity and increased retaliation are driven by alterations in perspective-taking and anger. Personality and Individual Differences, 104, 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Boddy, C. R. P. (2010). Corporate psychopaths and organizational type. Journal of Public Affairs, 10, 300–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Boddy, C. R., Ladyshewsky, R. K., & Galvin, P. (2010a). The influence of corporate psychopaths on corporate social responsibility and organizational commitment to employees. Journal of Business Ethics, 97, 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Boddy, C. R., Ladyshewsky, R., & Galvin, P. (2010b). Leaders without ethics in global business: Corporate psychopaths. Journal of Public Affairs, 10, 121–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bogart, L. M., Benotsch, E. G., & Pavlovic, J. D. P. (2004). Feeling superior but threatened: The relation of narcissism to social comparison. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 26, 35–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brunell, A. B., Gentry, W. A., Campbell, W. K., Hoffman, B. J., Kuhnert, K. W., & DeMarree, K. G. (2008). Leader emergence: The case of the narcissistic leader. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 1663–1676.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brunell, A. B., Staats, S., Barden, J., & Hupp, J. M. (2011). Narcissism and academic dishonesty: The exhibitionism dimension and the lack of guilt. Personality and Individual Differences, 50, 323–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bushman, B. J., & Baumeister, R. F. (2002). Does self-love or self-hate lead to violence? Journal of Research in Personality, 36, 543–545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Campbell, W. K., & Campbell, S. M. (2009). On the self-regulatory dynamics created by the peculiar benefits and costs of narcissism: A contextual reinforcement model and examination of leadership. Self & Identity, 8, 214–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Campbell, W. K., Reeder, G. D., Sedikides, C., & Elliot, A. J. (2000). Narcissism and comparative self-enhancement strategies. Journal of Research in Personality, 34, 329–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Campbell, W. K., Goodie, A. S., & Foster, J. D. (2004). Narcissism, confidence, and risk attitude. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 17, 297–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Campbell, W. K., Bush, C. P., Brunell, A. B., & Shelton, J. (2005). Understanding the social costs of narcissism: The case of the tragedy of the commons. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 1358–1368.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Campbell, W. K., Hoffman, B. J., Campbell, S. M., & Marchisio, G. (2011). Narcissism in organizational contexts. Human Resource Management Review, 21, 268–284.Google Scholar
  25. Cangemi, J. P., & Pfohl, W. (2009). Sociopaths in high places. Organization Development Journal, 27, 85.Google Scholar
  26. Carroll, L. (1987). A study of narcissism, affiliation, intimacy, and power motives among students in business administration. Psychological Reports, 61, 355–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chatterjee, A., & Hambrick, D. C. (2007). It's all about me: Narcissistic chief executive officers and their effects on company strategy and performance. Administrative Science Quarterly, 52, 351–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cropanzano, R., & Mitchell, M. S. (2005). Social exchange theory: An interdisciplinary review. Journal of Management, 31, 874–900.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Czarna, A. Z., Czerniak, A., & Szmajke, A. (2014a). Does communal context bring the worst in Narcissists? Polish Psychological Bulletin, 45, 464–468.  https://doi.org/10.2478/ppb-2014-0056.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Czarna, A. Z., Dufner, M., & Clifton, A. D. (2014b). The effects of vulnerable and grandiose narcissism on liking-based and disliking-based centrality in social networks. Journal of Research in Personality, 50, 42–45.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2014.02.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Czarna, A. Z., Wróbel, M., Dufner, M., & Zeigler-Hill, V. (2015). Narcissism and emotional contagion: Do narcissists “catch” the emotions of others? Social Psychological and Personality Science, 6, 318–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Czarna, A. Z., Leifeld, P., Śmieja, M., Dufner, M., & Salovey, P. (2016). Do narcissism and emotional intelligence win us friends? Modeling dynamics of peer popularity using inferential network analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 42, 1588–1599.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167216666265.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dahling, J. J., Whitaker, B. G., & Levy, P. E. (2008). The development and validation of a new Machiavellianism scale. Journal of Management, 35, 219–257.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206308318618.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. De Vries, K., & Miller, D. (1986). Personality, culture, and organization. Academy of Management Review, 11, 266–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Deluga, R. J. (1997). Relationship among American presidential charismatic leadership, narcissism, and rated performance. Leadership Quarterly, 8, 49–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. DePaulo, B. (2010). The psychology of Dexter. Dallas: BenBella Books.Google Scholar
  37. Duchon, D., & Drake, B. (2008). Organizational narcissism and virtuous behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 85, 301–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Eisenbarth, H., Hart, C. M., & Sedikides, C. (2018). Do psychopathic traits predict professional success? Journal of Economic Psychology, 64, 130–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Emmons, R. A. (1987). Narcissism: theory and measurement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Farwell, L., & Wohlwend-Lloyd, R. (1998). Narcissistic processes: Optimistic expectations, favorable self-evaluations, and self-enhancing attributions. Journal of Personality, 66, 65–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gabriel, M. T., Critelli, J. W., & Ee, J. S. (1994). Narcissistic illusions in self-evaluations of intelligence and attractiveness. Journal of Personality, 62, 143–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Galperin, B. L., Bennett, R. J., & Aquino, K. (2011). Status differentiation and the protean self: A social-cognitive model of unethical behavior in organizations. Journal of Business Ethics, 98, 407–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gerstner, W. C., König, A., Enders, A., & Hambrick, D. C. (2013). CEO narcissism, audience engagement, and organizational adoption of technological discontinuities. Administrative Science Quarterly, 58, 257–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Goncalo, J., Flynn, F., & Kim, S. (2010). Are two narcissists better than one? The link between narcissism, perceived creativity, and creative performance. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, 1484–1495.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Grijalva, E., & Harms, P. D. (2014). Narcissism: An integrative synthesis and dominance complementarity model. Academy of Management Perspectives, 28, 108–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Grijalva, E., Harms, P. D., Newman, D. A., Gaddis, B. H., & Fraley, R. C. (2015). Narcissism and leadership: A meta-analytic review of linear and nonlinear relationships. Personnel Psychology, 68, 1–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gunnthorsdottir, A., McCabe, K., & Smith, V. (2002). Using the Machiavellianism instrument to predict trustworthiness in a bargaining game. Journal of Economic Psychology, 23, 49–66.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-4870(01)00067-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Harms, P. D., & Spain, S. M. (2015). Beyond the bright side: Dark personality at work. Applied Psychology, 64, 15–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Harms, P. D., Spain, S. M., & Hannah, S. T. (2011). Leader development and the dark side of personality. The Leadership Quarterly, 22, 495–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Harrison, A., Summers, J., & Mennecke, B. (2016). The effects of the dark triad on unethical behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 1–25.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-016-3368-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hayward, M. L., Forster, W. R., Sarasvathy, S. D., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2010). Beyond hubris: How highly confident entrepreneurs rebound to venture again. Journal of Business Venturing, 25, 569–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hepper, E. G., Hart, C. M., Meek, R., Cisek, S., & Sedikides, C. (2014a). Narcissism and empathy in young offenders and non-offenders. European Journal of Personality, 28, 201–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hepper, E. G., Hart, C. M., & Sedikides, C. (2014b). Moving Narcissus: Can narcissists be empathic? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 40, 1079–1091.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hirschi, A., & Jänsch, V. K. (2015). Narcissism and career success: Occupational self-efficacy and career engagement as mediators. Personality and Individual Differences, 77, 205–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hmieleski, K. M., & Lerner, D. A. (2016). The dark triad and nascent entrepreneurship: An examination of unproductive versus productive entrepreneurial motives. Journal of Small Business Management, 54, 7–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hoffman, B. J., Strang, S. E., Kuhnert, K. W., Campbell, W. K., Kennedy, C. L., & LoPilato, A. C. (2013). Leader narcissism and ethical context: Effects on ethical leadership and leader effectiveness. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 20, 25–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hogan, R., & Kaiser, R. B. (2005). What we know about leadership. Review of General Psychology, 9, 169–180.  https://doi.org/10.1037/1089-2680.9.2.169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hogan, R., Raskin, R., & Fazzini, D. (1990). The dark side of charisma. In K. E. Clark & M. B. Clark (Eds.), Measures of leadership (pp. 343–354). West Orange: Leadership Library of America.Google Scholar
  59. Jonason, P. K., & O’Connor, P. J. (2017). Cutting corners at work: An individual differences perspective. Personality and Individual Differences, 107, 146–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Jonason, P. K., & Webster, G. D. (2010). The dirty dozen: A concise measure of the dark triad. Psychological Assessment, 22, 420–432.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Jonason, P. K., Slomski, S., & Partyka, J. (2012). The Dark Triad at work: How toxic employees get their way. Personality and Individual Differences, 52, 449–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Jonason, P. K., Wee, S., Li, N. P., & Jackson, C. (2014). Occupational niches and the Dark Triad traits. Personality and Individual Differences, 69, 119–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Jonason, P. K., Strosser, G. L., Kroll, C. H., Duineveld, J. J., & Baruffi, S. A. (2015). Valuing myself over others: The Dark Triad traits and moral and social values. Personality and Individual Differences, 81, 102–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Jones, D. N. (2014). Predatory personalities as behavioral mimics and parasites: Mimicry–deception theory. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 9, 445–451.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Judge, T. A., LePine, J. A., & Rich, B. L. (2006). Loving yourself abundantly: Relationship of the narcissistic personality to self-and other perceptions of workplace deviance, leadership, and task and contextual performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 762–775.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Judge, T. A., Piccolo, R. F., & Kosalka, T. (2009). The bright and dark sides of leader traits: A review and theoretical extension of the leader trait paradigm. Leadership Quarterly, 20, 855–875.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kashmiri, S., Nicol, C. D., & Arora, S. (2017). Me, myself, and I: influence of CEO narcissism on firms’ innovation strategy and the likelihood of product-harm crises. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 45, 633–656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kessler, S. R., Bandelli, A. C., Spector, P. E., Borman, W. C., Nelson, C. E., & Penney, L. M. (2010). Re-examining Machiavelli: A three-dimensional model of machiavellianism in the workplace. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 40, 1868–1896.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kets de Vries, M. F. R., & Miller, D. (1985). Narcissism and leadership: An object relations perspective. Human Relations, 38, 583–601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kiazad, K., Restubog, S. L. D., Zagenczyk, T. J., Kiewitz, C., & Tang, R. L. (2010). In pursuit of power: The role of authoritarian leadership in the relationship between supervisors’ Machiavellianism and subordinates’ perceptions of abusive supervisory behavior. Journal of Research in Personality, 44, 512–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kish-Gephart, J. J., Harrison, D. A., & Treviño, L. K. (2010). Bad apples, bad cases, and bad barrels: Meta-analytic evidence about sources of unethical decisions at work. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95, 1–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. LeBreton, J. M., Binning, J. F., & Adorno, A. J. (2006). Subclinical psychopaths. Comprehensive Handbook of Personality and Psychopathology, 1, 388–411.Google Scholar
  73. Martin, S. R., Côté, S., & Woodruff, T. (2016). Echoes of our upbringing: How growing up wealthy or poor relates to narcissism, leader behavior, and leader effectiveness. Academy of Management Journal, 59, 2157–2177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Matosic, D., Ntoumanis, N., Boardley, I. D., Stenling, A., & Sedikides, C. (2016). Linking narcissism, motivation, and doping attitudes in sport: A multilevel investigation involving coaches and athletes. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 38, 556–566.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Matosic, D., Ntoumanis, N., Boardley, I. D., Sedikides, C., Stewart, B. D., & Chatzisarantis, N. (2017). Narcissism and coach interpersonal style: A self-determination theory perspective. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 27, 254–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Mealey, L. (1995). The sociobiology of sociopathy: An integrated evolutionary model. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 18, 523–541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Min, H. Y. (2013). The relationship between self-differentiation and covert narcissism in terms of teachers’ organization citizenship behavior in childcare centers. Korean Journal of Child Studies, 34, 115–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Morf, C. C., & Rhodewalt, F. (2001). Unraveling the paradoxes of narcissism: A dynamic self-regulatory processing model. Psychological inquiry, 12, 177–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Morf, C. C., Weir, C., & Davidov, M. (2000). Narcissism and intrinsic motivation: The role of goal congruence. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 36, 424–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Moscoso, S., & Salgado, J. F. (2004). “Dark side” personality styles as predictors of task, contextual, and job performance. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 12, 356–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Nevicka, B., De Hoogh, A. H., Van Vianen, A. E., Beersma, B., & McIlwain, D. (2011a). All I need is a stage to shine: Narcissists’ leader emergence and performance. The Leadership Quarterly, 22, 910–925.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Nevicka, B., Ten Velden, F. S., De Hoogh, A. H., & Van Vianen, A. E. (2011b). Reality at odds with perceptions: Narcissistic leaders and group performance. Psychological Science, 22, 1259–1264.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Nevicka, B., De Hoogh, A. H., Van Vianen, A. E., & Ten Velden, F. S. (2013). Uncertainty enhances the preference for narcissistic leaders. European Journal of Social Psychology, 43, 370–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Nevicka, B., Baas, M., & Ten Velden, F. S. (2016). The bright side of threatened narcissism: Improved performance following ego threat. Journal of Personality, 84, 809–823.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Nevicka, B., De Hoogh, A. H., Den Hartog, D. N., & Belschak, F. D. (2018). Narcissistic leaders and their victims: Followers low on self-esteem and low on core self-evaluations suffer most. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 422.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. O’Boyle, E. H., Forsyth, D. R., Banks, G. C., & McDaniel, M. A. (2012). A meta-analysis of the dark triad and work behavior: A social exchange perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 97, 557–579.  https://doi.org/10.1037/A0025679.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Park, S. W., & Colvin, C. R. (2015). Narcissism and other-derogation in the absence of ego threat. Journal of Personality, 83(3), 334–345.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Paulhus, D. L., & Williams, K. M. (2002). The dark triad of personality: Narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy. Journal of Research in Personality, 36, 556–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Paulhus, D., Westlake, B., Calvez, S., & Harms, P. D. (2013). Self-presentation style in job interviews: The role of personality and culture. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 43, 2042–2059.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Paunonen, S. V., Lönnqvist, J. E., Verkasalo, M., Leikas, S., & Nissinen, V. (2006). Narcissism and emergent leadership in military cadets. The Leadership Quarterly, 17, 475–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Penney, L. M., & Spector, P. E. (2002). Narcissism and counterproductive work behavior: Do bigger egos mean bigger problems? International Journal of selection and Assessment, 10, 126–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Pilch, I. (2008). Osobowość makiawelisty i jego relacje z ludźmi.[Personality of a Machiavellian and their relationships with people]. Katowice: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Śląskiego.Google Scholar
  93. Qureshi, S. U., Ashfaq, J., & ul Hassan, M., & Imdadullah, M. (2015). Impact of extroversion and narcissism on in role and extra role performance: Moderating role of impression management motives. Pakistan Journal of Commerce and Social Sciences, 9, 96–119.Google Scholar
  94. Resick, C. J., Whitman, D. S., Weingarden, S. M., & Hiller, N. J. (2009). The bright-side and the dark-side of CEO personality: Examining core self-evaluations, narcissism, transformational leadership, and strategic influence. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94, 1365–1381.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Rosenthal, S. A., & Pittinsky, T. L. (2006). Narcissistic leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 17, 617–633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Schmidt, A. A. (2008). Development and validation of the Toxic Leadership Scale (Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park).Google Scholar
  97. Sedikides, C., & Campbell, W. K. (2017). Narcissistic force meets systemic resistance: The energy clash model. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 12, 400–421.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Sedikides, C., Rudich, E. A., Gregg, A. P., Kumashiro, M., & Rusbult, C. (2004). Are normal narcissists psychologically healthy?: Self-esteem matters. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87, 400–416.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Sedikides, C., Stahlberg, D., & Schoel, C. (2015). Psychological insecurity and leadership styles. In Handbook of Personal Security (pp. 73–92). Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  100. Settoon, R. P., Bennett, N., & Liden, R. C. (1996). Social exchange in organizations: Perceived organizational support, leader–member exchange, and employee reciprocity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, 219–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Shafer, W. E., & Simmons, R. S. (2008). Social responsibility, Machiavellianism and tax avoidance: A study of Hong Kong tax professionals. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 21, 695–720.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Smith, S. F., & Lilienfeld, S. O. (2013). Psychopathy in the workplace: The knowns and unknowns. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 18, 204–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Soyer, R. B., Rovenpor, J. L., Kopelman, R. E., Mullins, L. S., & Watson, P. J. (2001). Further assessment of the construct validity of four measures of narcissism: Replication and extension. The Journal of Psychology, 135, 245–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Spain, S. M., Harms, P., & LeBreton, J. M. (2014). The dark side of personality at work. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 35, 41–60.  https://doi.org/10.1002/job.1894.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Spurk, D., Keller, A. C., & Hirschi, A. (2016). Do bad guys get ahead or fall behind? Relationships of the dark triad of personality with objective and subjective career success. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 7, 113–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Stoeber, J., Sherry, S. B., & Nealis, L. J. (2015). Multidimensional perfectionism and narcissism: Grandiose or vulnerable? Personality and Individual Differences, 80, 85–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Templer, K. J. (2018). Dark personality, job performance ratings, and the role of political skill: An indication of why toxic people may get ahead at work. Personality and Individual Differences, 124, 209–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Thibaut, J. W., & Kelley, H. H. (1959). The social psychology of groups. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  109. Twenge, J. M., Konrath, S., Foster, J. D., Campbell, W. K., & Bushman, B. J. (2008). Egos inflating over time: A cross-temporal meta-analysis of the Narcissistic personality inventory. Journal of Personality, 76, 875–902.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Ullrich, S., Farrington, D. P., & Coid, J. W. (2008). Psychopathic personality traits and life-success. Personality and Individual Differences, 44, 1162–1171.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2007.11.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Vedel, A., & Thomsen, D. K. (2017). The Dark Triad across academic majors. Personality and Individual Differences, 116, 86–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Volmer, J., Koch, I. K., & Göritz, A. S. (2016). The bright and dark sides of leaders’ dark triad traits: Effects on subordinates’ career success and well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 101, 413–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Wallace, H. M., & Baumeister, R. F. (2002). The performance of narcissists rises and falls with perceived opportunity for glory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 819.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Watts, A. L., Lilienfeld, S. O., Smith, S. F., Miller, J. D., Campbell, W. K., Waldman, I. D., Rubenzer, S. J., & Faschingbauer, T. J. (2013). The double-edged sword of grandiose narcissism: Implications for successful and unsuccessful leadership among U.S. presidents. Psychological Science, 24, 2379–2389.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Wille, B., De Fruyt, F., & De Clercq, B. (2013). Expanding and reconceptualizing aberrant personality at work: Validity of five-factor model aberrant personality tendencies to predict career outcomes. Personnel Psychology, 66, 173–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Williams, K. M., Nathanson, C., & Paulhus, D. L. (2010). Identifying and profiling scholastic cheaters: Their personality, cognitive ability, and motivation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 16, 293–307.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0020773.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Williams, E. A., Pillai, R., Deptula, B. J., Lowe, K. B., & McCombs, K. (2018). Did charisma “Trump” narcissism in 2016? Leader narcissism, attributed charisma, value congruence and voter choice. Personality and Individual Differences, 130, 11–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Wilson, P. (2010). Why psychopaths like Dexter aren’t really all that bad. In B. DePaulo (Ed.), The psychology of Dexter (pp. 217–227). Dallas: BenBella Books.Google Scholar
  119. Wilson, K., Demetrioff, S., & Porter, S. (2008). A pawn by any other name? Social information processing as a function of psychopathic traits. Journal of Research in Personality, 42, 1651–1656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Winter, S. J., Stylianou, A. C., & Giacalone, R. A. (2004). Individual differences in the acceptability of unethical information technology practices: The case of Machiavellianism and ethical ideology. Journal of Business Ethics, 54, 273–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Woodman, T., Roberts, R., Hardy, L., Callow, N., & Rogers, C. H. (2011). There is an “I” in TEAM: Narcissism and social loafing. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 82, 285–290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Yang, Y., & Raine, A. (2008). Functional neuroanatomy of psychopathy. Psychiatry, 7, 133–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Yildiz, M. L., & Öncer, A. Z. (2012). Narcissism as a moderator of the relationship between organizational trust and organizational citizenship behaviour. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3, 212–222.Google Scholar
  124. Zettler, I., Friedrich, N., & Hilbig, B. E. (2011). Dissecting work commitment: The role of Machiavellianism. Career Development International, 16, 20–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Zhou, Y. (2017). Narcissism and the art market performance. The European Journal of Finance, 23, 1197–1218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Applied Psychology, Faculty of Managament and Social CommunicationJagiellonian UniversityKrakowPoland

Section editors and affiliations

  • Anna Czarna
    • 1
  1. 1.Jagiellonian UniversityKrakowPoland