Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences

Living Edition
| Editors: Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Todd K. Shackelford

Cultural Dimensions Theory

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_2093-1



Cultural dimensions summarize the extent to which cultural groups are found empirically to differ from one another in terms of psychological attributes such as values, beliefs, self- construals, personality, and behaviors.


From historical times, persons have made free use of stereotyped characterizations of groups other than their own and of individuals drawn from such groups. The more recent development of survey methodology has made it possible to summarize the extent to which the qualities attributed to particular groups such as nations are in fact endorsed by the members of those groups. A pioneering study by Hofstede (1980) identified four dimensions along which 50 nations and three regions could be described. A key aspect of Hofstede’s initiative was to distinguish between the way in which responses to survey items...


Cultural Dimensions Theory Power Distance Social Axioms National-level Differences Financial Satisfaction 
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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of PsychologyUniversity of SussexBrightonUK
  2. 2.Hong Kong Polytechnic UniversityHong KongChina

Section editors and affiliations

  • Anna Czarna
    • 1
  1. 1.Jagiellonian UniversityKrakowPoland