Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences

Living Edition
| Editors: Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Todd K. Shackelford

Normative Personality Development

  • Betsi LittleEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_1864-1



Normative personality development refers to the stages of growth or maturation that the majority of people of a specific age are expected to achieve (Meggit 2006) or generalizable trends of trait expression across the lifespan (Caspi et al. 2005).


Personality is defined as individual differences in the way one thinks, feels, and behaves. These differences are viewed as characteristic and enduring pattern cognitions and behavior, presented by the individual (McCrae and Costa 2008), while there is some debate as to whether these patterns are stable over time, described as traits, or whether external, environmental factors, or states, irrevocably change personality expression. Indeed changes in personality expression may result from intrinsic factors, such as maturation and motivation, or external, environmental factors, such as social pressure to find and follow a specific role.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National UniversityLa JollaUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • John F. Rauthmann
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyWake Forest UniversityWinston-SalemUSA