Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences

Living Edition
| Editors: Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Todd K. Shackelford

Self-Actualization Needs

  • Ian G. Hansen
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_1500-1


Self-actualization needs, as identified by psychologist Abraham Maslow, are the needs related to achieving peak human flourishing.

Key Information

Abraham Maslow conceived of self-actualization as an ideal psychological end state that a human being might reach after largely satisfying other, more fundamental needs. Maslow’s theory was that humans have a “hierarchy of needs” that existential urgency drives them to address in a particular order. At the bottom of the hierarchy are physiological needs, such as need for air, water, food, and a functional body temperature (Maslow 1954/1970, pp. 35–38). Next are safety needs, like security, protection from physical and psychological harm, and a sense of law and order having the edge over chaos (pp. 39–43). Next are belongingness and love needs, such as with a romantic partner, with friends and family, and with broader circles like social groups, religions, and nations (pp. 43–45). Next are esteem needs, consisting of first the...


Context Institute Consumer Culture Stanford Research Institute Impending Catastrophe Etymological Sense 
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.York College, CUNYJamaicaUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Ilan Dar-Nimrod
    • 1
  1. 1.University of SydneySydneyAustralia