Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences

Living Edition
| Editors: Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Todd K. Shackelford


Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_1462-1



D-love, also known as deficiency love, is the process of loving other (especially a partner) as a need for own gratification. This type of love needs to satiate the lack of belongingness and affection, a reason why the other is not seen as an independent, autonomous individual but rather as a mean to obtain what is lacked. It is a means experience rather than an end experience, i.e., the other is a vehicle to obtain love, respect, safety, and belongingness. Most importantly, according to Maslow (1954), it is the most common type of love.


Maslow (1954) proposed that individuals move toward goals (i.e., motivation) based on their necessities. This proposal led to his hierarchy of needs, which represents two major classifications of five basic necessities, i.e., basic needs (physiological, safety, and social) and growth needs (self-actualization).

Based on this need of...

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of PsychologyThe University of SydneyCamperdownAustralia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Ilan Dar-Nimrod
    • 1
  1. 1.University of SydneySydneyAustralia