Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences

Living Edition
| Editors: Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Todd K. Shackelford

Conscious, Preconscious, and Unconscious

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_1370-1
  • 3.9k Downloads

Synonyms

Definition

The terms “unconscious,” “preconscious,” and “conscious” can be understood in several interrelated ways. First, these terms can be understood descriptively (or epistemically), where being conscious refers to what is presently known and unconscious refers to what is presently unknown. Second, these terms can be understood systemically, with respect to an unconscious system (Ucs.), preconscious system (Pcs.), and conscious system (Cs.), each operating in distinct and specific ways. Lastly, these terms can be understood in a dynamic sense, where some mental content are made unconscious and prevented from reaching conscious awareness.

Introduction

The terms “unconscious,” “preconscious,” and “conscious” are interrelated, and so to understand the term, “unconscious” requires first clarifying what it means to be conscious. When we say that someone is “conscious,” we generally mean that the person is...

Keywords

Defence Mechanism Primary Process Unconscious Mental Process Dissociative Identity Disorder Paranormal Belief 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Boag, S. (2008a). Making sense of subliminal perception. In A. M. Columbus (Ed.), Advances in psychology research (pp. 117–139). New York: Nova.Google Scholar
  2. Boag, S. (2008b). Is language necessary for consciousness? An assessment of Freud’s ‘word/thing’ presentation distinction. In S. Boag (Ed.), Personality down under: Perspectives from Australia (pp. 81–89). New York: Nova.Google Scholar
  3. Bowins, B. (2004). Psychological defense mechanisms: A new perspective. The American Journal of Psychoanalysis, 64, 1–26.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Brakel, L. A. W. (2009). Philosophy, psychoanalysis, and the A-rational mind. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brentano, F. (1874/1973). Psychology from an empirical Standpoint. (trans: Rancurello, A.C., Terrell, D.B. & McAlister, L.L.). London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  6. Cramer, P. (2000). Defense mechanisms in psychology today: Further processes for adaptation. American Psychologist, 55, 637–646.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Descartes, R. (1641/1984). Objections & replies. In The philosophical writings of descartes, (vol. II, pp. 66–398). (trans: Cottingham, J., Stoohoff, R. & Murdoch, D.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Freud, S. (1900). The Interpretation of Dreams. Standard Edition, vols. IV–V. London: Hogarth.Google Scholar
  9. Freud, S. (1916-1917). Introductory lectures on psycho-analysis. Standard Edition, vols. XV & XVI. London: Hogarth.Google Scholar
  10. Freud, S. (1923). The ego and the id. Standard Edition, vol. XIX. London: Hogarth.Google Scholar
  11. Freud, S. (1933). New introductory lectures on psycho-analysis. Standard Edition, vol. XXII. London: Hogarth.Google Scholar
  12. Freud, A. (1936). The ego and the mechanisms of defence. London: The Hogarth Press.Google Scholar
  13. Freud, S. (1940). An outline of psycho-analysis. Standard Edition, vol. XXIII. London: Hogarth.Google Scholar
  14. Jones, B. P. (1993). Repression: The evolution of a psycho-analytic concept from the 1890s to the 1990s. Journal of the American Psycho-analytic Association, 41, 63–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kaplan-Solms, K., & Solms, M. (2000). Clinical studies in Neuro-psychoanalysis: Introduction to a depth psychology. London: Karnac.Google Scholar
  16. Kihlstrom, J. F. (1987). The cognitive unconscious. Science, 237, 1445–1452.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. MacIntyre, A. C. (1958). The unconscious: A conceptual analysis. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  18. Petocz, A. (1999). Freud, psychoanalysis, and symbolism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Talvitie, V. (2009). Freudian unconscious and cognitive neuroscience: From unconscious fantasies to neural algorithms. London: Karnac.Google Scholar
  20. Whyte, L. L. (1978). The unconscious before Freud. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  21. Wilson, T. D., & Dunn, E. W. (2004). Self-knowledge: Its limits, value, and potential for improvement. Annual Review of Psychology, 55, 493–518.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Macquarie UniversityNorth RydeAustralia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Virgil Zeigler-Hill
    • 1
  1. 1.Oakland UniversityRochesterUSA