In formal hypothesis testing, the null hypothesis (H0) is the hypothesis assumed to be true in the population and which gives rise to the sampling distribution of the test statistic in question (Hays 1994). The critical feature of the null hypothesis across hypothesis testing frameworks is that it is stated with enough precision that it can be tested.
A hypothesis is a statement or explanation about the nature or causes of some phenomena of interest. In the process of scientific study, we can distinguish two forms of hypotheses. A research hypothesis poses the question of interest, and if well stated, will include the variables under study and the expected relationship between them. A statistical hypothesis translates the research hypothesis into a mathematically precise, statistically testable statement concerning the assumed value of a parameter of interest in the population. The null hypothesis is an example of a statistical hypothesis.
In order to test these...
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