Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences

Living Edition
| Editors: Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Todd K. Shackelford


  • Clair Cassiello-RobbinsEmail author
  • Julianne G. Wilner
  • Shannon Sauer-Zavala
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_1256-1



The tendency to experience frequent and intense negative emotions accompanied by a perceived inability to cope with such experiences.


Temperament has been broadly described as an individual’s enduring emotional nature (Shiner et al. 2012). Neuroticism, one dimension of temperament, is defined as the tendency to experience intense negative emotions accompanied by aversive reactions to these experiences when they occur (such as a sense of uncontrollability or perceived inability to cope; Sauer-Zavala and Barlow 2014). Compared to other temperamental traits, neuroticism has received the most empirical attention, likely due to its association with a variety of psychological and physical health concerns. Previously thought to be a stable part of one’s character, there is increasing evidence to suggest that neuroticism is more malleable than previously thought, underscoring exciting...


Irritable Bowel Syndrome Negative Emotion Generalize Anxiety Disorder Personality Disorder Social Anxiety Disorder 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Clair Cassiello-Robbins
    • 1
    Email author
  • Julianne G. Wilner
    • 1
  • Shannon Sauer-Zavala
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Anxiety and Related Disorders, Department of Psychological and Brain SciencesBoston UniversityBostonUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Ashton Southard
    • 1
  1. 1.Oakland UniversityRochesterUSA