Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences

Living Edition
| Editors: Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Todd K. Shackelford

Neuroticism

  • Clair Cassiello-RobbinsEmail author
  • Julianne G. Wilner
  • Shannon Sauer-Zavala
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_1256-1

Synonyms

Definition

The tendency to experience frequent and intense negative emotions accompanied by a perceived inability to cope with such experiences.

Introduction

Temperament has been broadly described as an individual’s enduring emotional nature (Shiner et al. 2012). Neuroticism, one dimension of temperament, is defined as the tendency to experience intense negative emotions accompanied by aversive reactions to these experiences when they occur (such as a sense of uncontrollability or perceived inability to cope; Sauer-Zavala and Barlow 2014). Compared to other temperamental traits, neuroticism has received the most empirical attention, likely due to its association with a variety of psychological and physical health concerns. Previously thought to be a stable part of one’s character, there is increasing evidence to suggest that neuroticism is more malleable than previously thought, underscoring exciting...

Keywords

Irritable Bowel Syndrome Negative Emotion Generalize Anxiety Disorder Personality Disorder Social Anxiety Disorder 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Armstrong, L., & Rimes, K. A. (2016). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for neuroticism (stress vulnerability): A pilot randomized study. Behavior Therapy, 47, 287–298. doi:10.1016/j.beth.2015.12.005.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Barlow, D. H. (1991). Disorders of emotion. Psychological Inquiry, 2, 58–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barlow, D. H., Farchione, T. J., Fairholme, C. P., Ellard, K. K., Boisseau, C. L., Allen, L. B., & Ehrenreich-May, J. (2011). Unified Protocol for transdiagnostic treatment of emotional disorders: Therapist guide. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Barlow, D. H., Ellard, K. K., Sauer-Zavala, S., Bullis, J. R., & Carl, J. R. (2014a). The origins of neuroticism. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 9(5), 481–496. doi:10.1177/1745691614544528.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Barlow, D. H., Sauer-Zavala, S., Carl, J. R., Bullis, J. R., & Ellard, K. K. (2014b). The nature, diagnosis, and treatment of neuroticism back to the future. Clinical Psychological Science, 2(3), 344–365. doi:10.1177/2167702613505532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barlow, D. H., Farchione, T. J., Bullis, J. R., Gallagher, M. W., Latin, H., Sauer-Zavala, S., … Cassiello-Robbins, C. (manuscript under review). Equivalence evaluation of the Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders compared to diagnosis-specific CBT for anxiety disorders.Google Scholar
  8. Bouchard, T. J., & Loehlin, J. C. (2001). Genes evolution, and personality. Behavior Genetics, 31(3), 243–273. doi:10.1023/A:1012294324713.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Brown, T. A. (2007). Temporal course and structural relationships among dimensions of temperament and DSM–IV anxiety and mood disorder constructs. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116(2), 313–328.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Brown, T. A., & Barlow, D. H. (2009). A proposal for a dimensional classification system based on the shared features of the DSM-IV anxiety and mood disorders: Implications for assessment and treatment. Psychological Assessment, 21(3), 256–271. doi:10.1037/a0016608.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Davenport, J., Bore, M., & Campbell, J. (2010). Changes in personality in pre-and post dialectical behaviour therapy borderline personality disorder groups: A question of self-control. Australian Psychologist, 45(1), 59–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Eaton, N., Krueger, R., & Oltmanns, T. (2011). Aging and the structure and long-term stability of the internalizing spectrum of personality and psychopathology. Psychology and Aging, 26(4), 987–993. doi:10.1037/a0024406.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Ellard, K. K., Deckersbach, T., Sylvia, L. G., Nierenberg, A. A., & Barlow, D. H. (2012). Transdiagnostic treatment of bipolar disorder and comorbid anxiety with the Unified Protocol: A clinical replication series. Behavior Modification, 36(4), 482–508.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Eysenck, H. J. (1947). Student selection by means of psychological tests – A critical survey. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 17(1), 20–39.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Freud, S. (1924). Collected papers. New York: International Psychoanalytic Press.Google Scholar
  16. Frølund Pedersen, H., Frostholm, L., Søndergaard Jensen, J., Ørnbøl, E., & Schröder, A. (2016). Neuroticism and maladaptive coping in patients with functional somatic syndromes. British Journal of Health Psychology. doi:10.1111/bjhp.12206.Google Scholar
  17. Gallagher, M. W. (2015). Unified Protocol for post- traumatic stress disorder. In D. Barlow & T. Farchione (Eds.), Applications of the Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Gunnar, M. R., & Quevedo, K. (2007). The neurobiology of stress and development. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 145–173. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.58.110405.085605.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Helson, R., Jones, C., & Kwan, V. S. (2002). Personality change over 40 years of adulthood: Hierarchical linear modeling analyses of two longitudinal samples. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83(3), 752–766.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Ilieva, I. (2015). Enhancement of healthy personality through psychiatric medication: The influence of SSRIs on neuroticism and extraversion. Neuroethics, 8(2), 127–137. doi:10.1007/s12152-014-9226-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kennedy, S. J., Rapee, R. M., & Edwards, S. L. (2009). A selective intervention program for inhibited preschool-aged children of parents with an anxiety disorder: Effects on current anxiety disorders and temperament. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 48(6), 602–609.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Lahey, B. B. (2009). Public health significance of neuroticism. American Psychologist, 64(4), 241–256. doi:10.1037/a0015309.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Miller, J. D., & Pilkonis, P. A. (2006). Neuroticism and affective instability: The same or different? The American Journal of Psychiatry, 163(5), 839–845. doi:10.1176/ajp.2006.163.5.839.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Piazza, J. R., Charles, S. T., Sliwinski, M. J., Mogle, J., & Almeida, D. M. (2013). Affective reactivity to daily stressors and long-term risk of reporting a chronic physical health condition. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 45(1), 110–120. doi:10.1007/s12160-012-9423-0.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Rapee, R. M., Kennedy, S., Ingram, M., Edwards, S., & Sweeney, L. (2005). Prevention and early intervention of anxiety disorders in inhibited preschool children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73(3), 488–497. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.73.3.488.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Rapee, R. M., Kennedy, S. J., Ingram, M., Edwards, S. L., & Sweeney, L. (2010). Altering the trajectory of anxiety in at-risk young children. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 167(12), 1518–1525. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2010.09111619.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Sauer-Zavala, S., & Barlow, D. H. (2014). The case for borderline personality disorder as an emotional disorder: Implications for treatment. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 21(2), 118–113. doi:10.1111/cpsp.12063.Google Scholar
  28. Shiner, R. L., Buss, K. A., McClowry, S. G., Putnam, S. P., Saudino, K. J., & Zentner, M. (2012). What is temperament now? Assessing progress in temperament research on the twenty-fifth anniversary of Goldsmith et al.(). Child Development Perspectives, 6(4), 436–444. doi:10.1111/j.1750-8606.2012.00254.x.Google Scholar
  29. Warner, M. B., Morey, L. C., Finch, J. F., Gunderson, J. G., Skodol, A. E., Sanislow, C. A., Shea, M. T., McGlashan, T. H., & Grilo, C. M. (2004). The longitudinal relationship of personality traits and disorders. Focus, 3(3), 465–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Westlye, L. T., Bjornebekk, A., Grydeland, H., Fjell, A. M., & Walhovd, K. B. (2011). Linking an anxiety-related personality trait to brain white matter microstructure: Diffusion tensor imaging and harm avoidance. Archives of General Psychiatry, 68(4), 369–377. doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Wiersma, J. E., van Oppen, P., van Schaik, D. J., van der Does, A. W., Beekman, A. T., & Penninx, B. W. (2011). Psychological characteristics of chronic depression: A longitudinal cohort study. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 72(3), 288–294.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Zinbarg, R. E., Mineka, S., Bobova, L., Craske, M. G., Vrshek-Schallhorn, S., Griffith, J. W., et al. (2016). Testing a hierarchical model of neuroticism and its cognitive facets latent structure and prospective prediction of first onsets of anxiety and unipolar mood disorders during 3 years in late adolescence. Clinical Psychological Science, 4(5), 805. doi:10.1177/2167702615618162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Clair Cassiello-Robbins
    • 1
    Email author
  • Julianne G. Wilner
    • 1
  • Shannon Sauer-Zavala
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Anxiety and Related Disorders, Department of Psychological and Brain SciencesBoston UniversityBostonUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Ashton Southard
    • 1
  1. 1.Oakland UniversityRochesterUSA