Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences

Living Edition
| Editors: Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Todd K. Shackelford

Neuroticism (Eysenck’s Theory)

  • Per BechEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_1094-1



The Eysenck personality theory is based on the four classic temperaments (melancholic, choleric, phlegmatic, and sanguine) which Wilhelm Wundt integrated in the two dimensions of neuroticism and extraversion. Neuroticism covers the melancholic and choleric temperaments as a personality trait, i.e., a disposition-oriented tendency to react too emotionally in certain situations. Neuroticism, or emotionality, is the most distinct of Eysenck’s personality traits. It was also historically the first trait he defined. Thus, the Maudsley Medical Questionnaire (MMQ) was constructed to measure the personality trait of neuroticism. The MMQ contained 40 items. To cover both neuroticism and extraversion, the Maudsley Personality Inventory (MPI) was developed in 1956. A short version of the MPI containing six neuroticism items was published by Eysenck in 1958.

The Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) was developed by Eysenck and Eysenck...


Personality Trait Item Response Theory Item Response Theory Model Hamilton Depression Scale Eysenck Personality Questionnaire 
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of CopenhagenHillerødDenmark

Section editors and affiliations

  • Beth A. Visser
    • 1
  1. 1.Lakehead UniversityOrilliaCanada