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Extraversion-Introversion (Jung’s Theory)

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Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences

Synonyms

Outer directed (extraversion); Inner directed (introversion)

Definition

Jung defined the term “extraversion” in Psychological Types as an “outward-turning of libido” and in the same book “introversion” as the “inward-turning of libido” (1921, pp. 427, 452) in both cases defining libido as he had already done in Symbols of Transformation (1912/1956, pp. 128–141) as “psychic energy,” a term that for him meant “the intensity of a psychological process, its psychological value” in the sense of “its determining power” to produce “definite psychic effects” (1921, pp. 455–456; c.f. also Jung “On Psychic Energy,” 1928/1960, pp. 3–66). These effects are nowhere more evident than in the direction and distribution of consciousness, which he defines, subjectively, as the relation of psychic contents to the ego – that “complex of ideas” that “constitutes the centre of my field of consciousness and appears to possess a high degree of continuity and identity” (1921, p. 425).

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References

  • Beebe, J. (2016). Energies and patterns in psychological type: The reservoir of consciousness. London/New York: Routledge.

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  • Jung, C. G. (1912/1956). Symbols of transformation (trans: Hull, R. F. C.). Collected works of C. G. Jung, vol. 5. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

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  • Jung, C. G. (1921/1971). Psychological types (trans: Baynes, H. G. & Hull, R. F. C.). Collected works of C. G. Jung, vol. 6. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

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  • Jung, C. G. (1928/1960). On psychic energy. In The structure and meaning of the psyche (trans: Hull, R. F. C.). Collected works of C. G. Jung, vol. 8, pp. 3–66. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

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  • Myers, I. B. (with Myers, P. B.) (1980). Gifts differing: Understanding personality type. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press.

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  • Shapiro, K. J., & Alexander, I. E. (1975). The experience of introversion: An integration of phenomenological, empirical, and Jungian approaches. Durham: Duke University Press.

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Correspondence to John Beebe .

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Beebe, J. (2016). Extraversion-Introversion (Jung’s Theory). In: Zeigler-Hill, V., Shackelford, T. (eds) Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_1073-1

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_1073-1

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