Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes

Living reference work entry
Part of the Endocrinology book series (ENDOCR)

Abstract

Type 2 diabetes has become a serious public health concern. It has multiple behavioral, metabolic, and genetic risk factors. Excess body fat, especially central obesity, is the strongest risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Diets favoring higher intake of whole grains, green leafy vegetables, and coffee and lower intake of refined grains, red and processed meat, and sugar-sweetened beverages have been associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes. Regular physical activity, ranging from brisk walking to higher-intensity endurance or resistance training, has been associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes. Novel biomarkers, such as adipokines and inflammatory cytokines, and intermediate conditions, such as metabolic syndrome, have offered the potential to improve diabetes prediction. Multiple diabetes genetic variants have been identified, and the collaborative efforts are made to investigate gene-environment interactions. Continued work to prevent diabetes is warranted through development of precision health interventions and public health strategies targeting these risk factors.

Keywords

Type 2 diabetes Epidemiology Risk factors 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of MedicineBrigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  2. 2.Department of NutritionHarvard T.H. Chan School of Public HealthBostonUSA
  3. 3.Department of MedicineMassachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA

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