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Angiogenesis in Liver Cancer

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Tumors and Tumor-Like Lesions of the Hepatobiliary Tract
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Abstract

Angiogenesis, the formation of new tumor vessels, is a critical mechanism for the development and progression of hepatobiliary cancers, which are often highly vascular tumors. In contrast to normal tissues, tumor vessels frequently form highly atypical branching patterns, with irregular diameters and abrupt changes from large to small diameters. This abnormal vasculature of malignant neoplasms serves as an important diagnostic element in modern tumor imaging. The principal cells mediating angiogenesis in neoplasms are tumor endothelial cells, and auxiliary cells involved in tumor angiogenesis include perivascular cells, stromal cells, tumor-associated monocytes and macrophages, and other leukocytes. Initiation and progression of angiogenesis, which requires a vigorous proliferative response of tumor endothelial cells and their precursors, involves the action of numerous angiogenic factors. Similar to normal tissues, the main factors comprise vascular endothelial growth factors, angiopoietins, basic fibroblast growth factor, platelet-derived endothelial growth factor, endoglin, and ephrin. Hepatobiliary cancers also express several anti-angiogenic factors. Tumor angiogenesis is markedly modulated by factors secreted by stromal leukocytes and by epigenetic mechanisms, mainly numerous microRNAs expressed by tumor cells and stromal cells.

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Zimmermann, A. (2017). Angiogenesis in Liver Cancer. In: Tumors and Tumor-Like Lesions of the Hepatobiliary Tract. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-26956-6_186

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