Cavernous and Small Vessel Hemangiomas of the Hepatobiliary Tract

Living reference work entry

Abstract

Among primary vascular tumors of the liver, cavernous hemangiomas are the most common lesions. Autopsy data document an incidence of up to more than 7 %. There is a female preponderance. These tumors, which consist of dilated vascular channels with an endothelial lining and a fibrous intervascular tissue, occur as solitary or multiple lesions in livers that usually do not show preexistent disease, although the tumors can occur in conjunction with other hepatic changes, such as focal nodular hyperplasia. Macroscopically, cavernous hemangiomas are dark red to bluish, well-delineated tumors that may show a spongy aspect. Many hemangiomas are small lesions, but large tumor also occurs (giant hemangiomas). Large hemangiomas are sometimes synchronously accompanied by several or numerous small lesions. Cavernous hemangiomas show complex feeding vessels that are visualized by modern imaging techniques. The tumors may undergo secondary changes, including thrombosis, inflammation, necrosis, hemorrhage, calcifications, and fibrosis. Cavernous hepatic hemangiomas can undergo spontaneous regression. A second group of hepatic hemangiomas is characterized by dense collections of small vessels (small vessel hemangiomas and capillary hemangiomas).

Keywords

Anastomosing hemangioma, liver Calcifications Capillary hemangioma, liver in adults Capillary hemangioma, liver in infancy and childhood Cavernous hemangioma, liver Giant cavernus hemangioma, liver Hemangiomas, bile ducts Hepatobiliary tract, lobular capillary hemangioma Hyalinized hemangioma, liver Interleukin-17 Intratumoral hemorrhage Liver Anastomosing hemangioma Cavernous hemangioma Liver hemangiomas, with myoid component Liver, giant cavernus hemangioma Liver, hyalinized hemangioma Lobular capillary hemangioma, hepatobiliary tract Peliosis hepatis Pyogenic granuloma. See Lobular capillary hemangioma, hepatobiliary tract Sclerosed angioma and sclerosed cavernous hemangioma, liver Solitary versus multiple hepatic hemangiomas 

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© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of BernBernSwitzerland

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