Physical Basics of Thermal Techniques of Nondestructive Evaluation
Thermal techniques of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) have become mature high-technology fields that have essentially contributed to nondestructive testing, condition monitoring, and predictive maintenance. In many industrial applications, these techniques help to identify problems that must be addressed, prevent equipment failure, and provide significant cost savings.
Thermal NDE has many advantages including a wide range of applications and a much higher inspection rate than other NDE methods. Improvements in IR imagers in the last decade, accompanied by dramatic advances in computer data processing, have resulted in significant improvements in the detection and characterization of hidden structural defects in solids by analyzing material surface temperature distributions.
This chapter establishes the physical basics of thermal NDE including elements of heat conduction in solids with defects and basics of thermal radiation, as well as inspection terminology, procedures, and data processing. Following ISO 10878, this inspection technique is called Infrared Thermographic Testing (ITT). In the chapter, the elements of thermal NDE are discussed at a level which is necessary for understanding the physical principles of this testing method.
- Almond D, Patel P (1996) Photothermal science and techniques. Chapman & Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Beller WS (1965) Navy sees promise in infrared thermography for solid case checking. Missiles Rockets 22:1234–1241Google Scholar
- Breitenstein O, Warta W, Langekamp M (2010) Lock-in thermography. In: Springer series in advanced microelectronics, vol 10. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
- Busse G (1985) Imaging with optically generated thermal waves. In: Physical acoustics, vol 43. Academic, London, pp 403–478Google Scholar
- Carslow HS, Jaeger TS (1959) Conduction of heat in solids. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UKGoogle Scholar
- Cramer K, Winfree W, Hodges K, Koshti A, Ryan D, Reinhard WW (2006) Status of thermal NDE of space shuttle materials at NASA. In: Proceedings of SPIE “Thermosense-XXVIII”, vol 6205, 62051B1-9Google Scholar
- Gorril WS (1949) Industrial high-speed infrared pyrometer to measure the temperature of a soldered seam on a tin can. Electronics 22:112–115Google Scholar
- Green DR (1965) Emissivity-independent infrared thermal testing method. Mater Eval 23(2):79–85Google Scholar
- Grinzato E, Vavilov V, Bison PG, Marinetti S (1995) Methodology of processing experimental data in transient thermal NDE. In: Proceedings of SPIE “Thermosense-XVII”, vol 2473, pp 62–63Google Scholar
- Kush DV, Rapoport DA, Budadin ON (1988) Inverse problem of automated thermal NDE. Defectoscopiya (Soviet J. NDE) 5:64–68 (in Russian)Google Scholar
- Luong MP (1992) Infrared thermography of fatigue in metals. In: Proceedings of SPIE “Thermosense-XIV”, vol 1682, pp 222–232Google Scholar
- Nichols JT (1935) Temperature measuring. US Patent 2,008,793Google Scholar
- Pettersson B, Bengt A (1980) Thermography. Testing of the thermal insulation and airtightness of buildings. Swedish Council for Building Research, StockholmGoogle Scholar
- Popov Yu A, Karpelson AE, Strokov VA (1976) Thermal NDE of multi-layer structures. Defectoscopiya (Soviet J NDE) 3:76–81 (in Russian)Google Scholar
- Shepard S (2001) Advances in pulsed thermography. In: Proceedings of SPIE “Thermosense-XXIII”, vol 4360, pp 511–515Google Scholar
- Taylor JO, Dupont HM (1998) Inspection of metallic thermal protection systems for the X-33 launch vehicle using pulsed infrared thermography. In: Proceedings of SPIE “Thermosense-XX”, vol 3361, pp 301–310Google Scholar
- Vavilov VP (2017) Thermal nondestructive testing of materials and products: a review. Rus J NDT 53(10):707–730Google Scholar
- Vavilov V, Taylor R (1982) Theoretical and practical aspects of the thermal NDE of bonded structures. In: Sharpe R (ed) Research technique in NDE, vol 5. Academic, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Vernotte P (1937) Mesure de la conductibilite thermique des isolants. methode de toushau. Chaleur Ind 208:331–337 (in French)Google Scholar