Diagnostic Applications of Nuclear Medicine: Prostatic Cancer

  • Emilio Bombardieri
  • Maria Grazia Sauta
  • Lucia Setti
  • Roberta Meroni
  • Gianluigi Ciocia
  • Laura Evangelista
Living reference work entry


Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common cancers in the male population. Its incidence, mortality, and prevalence are different across different geographical areas, depending on the different approaches adopted for screening, early diagnosis, and availability of treatments. Digital rectal exploration (DRE) and the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test are the most common clinical practice used for PCa screening.

The choice of treatment should be patient specific and risk adjusted. The therapeutic approaches for patients with PCa include different options: watchful waiting, radical prostatectomy, radiotherapy, hormone therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and treatment of bone metastases.


Prostate cancer Diagnostic imaging Bone scan SPECT/CT PET/CT Biomarkers for prostate cancer 













2-[3-{1-Carboxy-5-[(6-[18F]fluoro-pyridine-3-carbonyl)-amino]-pentil}-ureido]-pentanedioic acid


Anti-1-amino-3-18F-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid, or 18F-fluciclovine


18F-sodium fluoride


Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy




99mTc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate


99mTc-methylene diphosphonate


American College of Physicians


American Cancer Society


Androgen deprivation therapy


American Joint Committee on Cancer


Alkaline phosphatase


Active surveillance


American Society of Clinical Oncology


American Urological Association


Bone scintigraphy


Bone scan index


Castrate-resistant prostate cancer


X-ray computed tomography


C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen


17-Alpha-monooxygenase, a crucial enzyme for the synthesis of testosterone from non-gonadal sources


Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging


Digital rectal exploration


Diffusion-weighted imaging, an MR imaging technique


External beam radiation therapy


Effective dose


European Medicines Agency


ETS-related gene


E26 transformation-specific family


United States Food and Drug Administration


Glucose transporter family


Gleason score


High-dose rate radiotherapy


High-intensity focused ultrasound


Cross-linked carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen


Image-guided radiotherapy


Intensity-modulated radiotherapy


Low-dose rate radiotherapy


Luteinizing hormone


Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone


Metastasis status according to the AJCC/UICC TNM staging system


Magnetic resonance


Magnetic resonance imaging


Lymph node status according to the AJCC/UICC TNM staging system


National Comprehensive Cancer Network


National Comprehensive Cancer Network


United States National Oncologic PET Registry


Negative predictive value


Tumor protein p53, also known as cellular tumor antigen p53, phosphoprotein p53, tumor suppressor p53, antigen NY-CO-13, or transformation-related protein 53 (TRP53)


Prostate cancer


Positron emission tomography response criteria in solid tumors


Positron emission tomography


Positron emission tomography/computed tomography


Positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance


Positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging


Amino-terminal procollagen propeptide type I


Positive predictive value


Prostate-specific antigen


Prostate-specific antigen


Prostate-specific membrane antigen


Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B


Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand, also known as tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 11 (TNFSF11), TNF-related activation-induced cytokine (TRANCE), osteoprotegerin ligand (OPGL), and osteoclast differentiation factor (ODF)


Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy


Response evaluation criteria in solid tumors


Receiver operating characteristic, a statistical analysis to assess the performance of a binary classifier




Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging


Single photon emission computed tomography


Single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography


Skeletal related event


Standardized uptake value


Standardized uptake value at point of maximum


Tumor status according to the AJCC/UICC TNM staging system


Transmembrane protease, serine 2


AJCC/UICC staging system based on parameters “T” (tumor status), “N” (lymph node status) and “M” (distant metastasis status)


Transrectal ultrasound


Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (International Union Against Cancer)




United States Preventive Services Task Force


Whole body


Whole-body scan



The authors are grateful to Dr. Thomas A. Hope, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California (USA), for his scientific contribution and to Ms. Annaluisa De Simone Sorrentin for her kind editorial assistance.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Emilio Bombardieri
    • 1
    • 2
  • Maria Grazia Sauta
    • 3
  • Lucia Setti
    • 2
  • Roberta Meroni
    • 4
  • Gianluigi Ciocia
    • 2
    • 5
  • Laura Evangelista
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Nucleare MedicineHumanitas Gavazzeni HospitalBergamoItaly
  2. 2.Nuclear Medicine Unit“Humanitas Gavazzeni” HospitalBergamoItaly
  3. 3.Oncology Unit“Humanitas Gavazzeni” HospitalBergamoItaly
  4. 4.Radiology Unit“Humanitas Gavazzeni” HospitalBergamoItaly
  5. 5.Radiotherapy Unit“Humanitas Gavazzeni” HospitalBergamoItaly
  6. 6.Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging UnitVeneto Institute of Oncology IOV - IRCCSPaduaItaly

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