Single-Photon Emitting Radiopharmaceuticals for Diagnostic Applications

  • Federica Orsini
  • Erinda Puta
  • Alice Lorenzoni
  • Paola Anna Erba
  • Giuliano Mariani
Living reference work entry

Abstract

Radiopharmaceuticals contain a radionuclide and an agent to direct the radionuclide to a receptor, antigen, ionic pump, or other sites of interest. Some radiopharmaceuticals are simple, such as the ionic form of the radionuclide, while most radiopharmaceuticals have a complex chemical structure where the radionuclide provides a signal, indicating the site of localization of the carrier molecule.

Common single-photon radiopharmaceuticals used for oncological diagnosis include the agents labeled with 99mTc such as 99mTc-bisphosphonates (that accumulate at sites of bone mineral deposition), 99mTc-labeled colloids (that are used for lymphoscintigraphy and for imaging of the liver and spleen), 99mTc-hexakis-methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile, and 99mTc-tetrofosmin (initially employed for myocardial perfusion imaging, and also used for localization of parathyroid adenomas and for identification of other malignant tumors).

The most commonly used radiopharmaceuticals labeled with radioiodine (123I or 131I) include iodide itself (for localization of thyroid tissue) and the catecholamine analog metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG, for localizing pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma). Thallium-201 chloride (201Tl) is used for myocardial perfusion imaging as well as tumor perfusion imaging, while 111In-pentetreotide detects overexpression of somatostatin receptors, especially in neuroendocrine tumors and in lesions arising from the neural crest, such as carcinoid, paragangliomas, and medullary thyroid carcinomas. 111In-capromab pendetide is a murine monoclonal antibody recognizing a transmembrane glycoprotein expressed by poorly differentiated and metastatic prostate adenocarcinomas. 67Ga-citrate receptors are overexpressed on membranes of both tumor and inflammatory cells.

Keywords

Single-photon emission imaging Radiopharmaceuticals Radiotracer 

Glossary

[123I]MIBG

meta-[123I]Iodobenzylguanidine

[131I]MIBG

meta-[131I]Iodobenzylguanidine

[18F]FDG

2-Deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-d-glucose

99mTc-DTPA

99mTc-Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid

99mTc-HDP

99mTc-Hydroxyethylenediphosphonate

99mTc-MAA

99mTc-Macroaggregated albumin

99mTc-MDP

99mTc-Methylene diphosphonate

COMT

Catecholamine-O-methyltransferase

COPD

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

DIT

Diiodotyrosine

DTPA

Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid

EDDA

Ethylenediamine-N,N'-bis(2-hydroxyphenyl)acetic acid

EMA

European Medicines Agency

FDA

United States Food and Drug Administration

HYNIC

6-Hydrazinopyridine-3-carboxylic acid, also known aso hydrazidonicotinic acid/hydrazinonicotinamide

LDL

Low-density lipoproteins

MAO

Monoamine oxidase

MIBG

Meta-iodobenzylguanidine

MIT

Monoiodotyrosine

NIS

Sodium–iodide symporter

PET

Positron emission tomography

PSMA

Prostate-specific membrane antigen

ROLL

Radioguided occult lesion localization

SLN

Sentinel lymph node

SPECT

Single-photon emission tomography

SST

Somatostatin

SSTR

Somatostatin receptor

TSH

Thyroid-stimulating hormone

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Federica Orsini
    • 1
  • Erinda Puta
    • 1
  • Alice Lorenzoni
    • 2
  • Paola Anna Erba
    • 3
  • Giuliano Mariani
    • 3
  1. 1.Nuclear Medicine Unit“Maggiore della Carità” University HospitalNovaraItaly
  2. 2.Nuclear Medicine and PET UnitNational Cancer Institute IRCCSMilanItaly
  3. 3.Regional Center of Nuclear MedicineUniversity of PisaPisaItaly

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