Diagnostic Applications of Nuclear Medicine: Tumors of the Liver and Biliary Tract

Living reference work entry


In liver and biliary tumors, modern imaging techniques play an important role in therapeutic decision-making. Whether the decision involves determining if the tumor is resectable or how it is responding to treatment, nuclear imaging has the potential to facilitate the decision-making process. Here we cover various studies that investigate the comparative effectiveness of cross-sectional morphologic imaging alone and in combination with functional nuclear medicine imaging. Specifically, we discuss the role of nuclear imaging in the diagnosis, characterization, and treatment of patients with primary and secondary liver or biliary tract malignancies.


Primary tumors Hepatocellular carcinoma Hepatoma Gallbladder carcinoma Cholangiocarcinoma Biliary cancer Colorectal metastases Neuroendocrine metastases [11C]Acetate 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose ([18F]FDG) PET/CT MRI CT scan Staging Resectability Recurrence Nuclear imaging Diagnostic 





American Cancer Society


Alpha Fetoprotein


Arterial infusion


Cancer antigen

CA 19–9

Carbohydrate antigen 19–9, a tumor-associated marker


Carcinoembryonic antigen, a tumor-associated marker


Colorectal cancer


X-ray computed tomography


2-(4-Isothiocyanatobenzyl-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (macrocyclic coupling agent to label compounds of biological interest with metal radionuclides)








Chemotherapy regimen based on FOL– Folinic acid F – Fluorouracil OX – Oxaliplatin


Gallbladder cancer


Hepatocellular carcinoma




Immunoglobulin G4




Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography


Magnetic Resonance Imaging


National Comprehensive Cancer Network


Neuroendocrine Tumors


Overall survival


Positron emission tomography


Positron emission tomography/computed tomography


Progression-free survival


Primary sclerosing cholangitis


Percutaneous transhepatic


Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy


Standardized uptake value


Standardized uptake value at point of maximum


Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SurgeryCity of Hope National Medical CenterDuarteUSA
  2. 2.Department of RadiologyMemorial Sloan Kettering Cancer CenterNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.DuarteUSA

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