Diagnostic Applications of Nuclear Medicine: Tumors of the Liver and Biliary Tract

Living reference work entry

Abstract

In liver and biliary tumors, modern imaging techniques play an important role in therapeutic decision-making. Whether the decision involves determining if the tumor is resectable or how it is responding to treatment, nuclear imaging has the potential to facilitate the decision-making process. Here we cover various studies that investigate the comparative effectiveness of cross-sectional morphologic imaging alone and in combination with functional nuclear medicine imaging. Specifically, we discuss the role of nuclear imaging in the diagnosis, characterization, and treatment of patients with primary and secondary liver or biliary tract malignancies.

Keywords

Primary tumors Hepatocellular carcinoma Hepatoma Gallbladder carcinoma Cholangiocarcinoma Biliary cancer Colorectal metastases Neuroendocrine metastases [11C]Acetate 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose ([18F]FDG) PET/CT MRI CT scan Staging Resectability Recurrence Nuclear imaging Diagnostic 

Glossary

[18F]FDG

2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose

ACS

American Cancer Society

AFP

Alpha Fetoprotein

AI

Arterial infusion

CA

Cancer antigen

CA 19–9

Carbohydrate antigen 19–9, a tumor-associated marker

CEA

Carcinoembryonic antigen, a tumor-associated marker

CRC

Colorectal cancer

CT

X-ray computed tomography

DOTA

2-(4-Isothiocyanatobenzyl-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (macrocyclic coupling agent to label compounds of biological interest with metal radionuclides)

DOTANOC

DOTA-1-Nal3-octreotide

DOTATATE

DOTA-Tyr3-octreotate

DOTATOC

DOTA-octreotide

FOLFOX

Chemotherapy regimen based on FOL– Folinic acid F – Fluorouracil OX – Oxaliplatin

GBC

Gallbladder cancer

HCC

Hepatocellular carcinoma

HPB

Hepatopancreaticobiliary

IgG4

Immunoglobulin G4

MIBG

Metaiodobenzylguanidine

MRCP

Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography

MRI

Magnetic Resonance Imaging

NCCN

National Comprehensive Cancer Network

NETs

Neuroendocrine Tumors

OS

Overall survival

PET

Positron emission tomography

PET/CT

Positron emission tomography/computed tomography

PFS

Progression-free survival

PSC

Primary sclerosing cholangitis

PTCS

Percutaneous transhepatic

SRS

Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy

SUV

Standardized uptake value

SUVmax

Standardized uptake value at point of maximum

TACE

Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SurgeryCity of Hope National Medical CenterDuarteUSA
  2. 2.Department of RadiologyMemorial Sloan Kettering Cancer CenterNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.DuarteUSA

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