Glucosinolates pp 201-235 | Cite as

Glucosinolate and Isothiocyanate Production for Weed Control in Plasticulture Production System

  • Sanjeev K. BangarwaEmail author
  • Jason K. Norsworthy
Reference work entry
Part of the Reference Series in Phytochemistry book series (RSP)


Brassicaceae cover crops have been studied as biofumigant crops for weed and other soilborne pest control in plasticulture production, especially in the absence of the commercial fumigant methyl bromide (MeBr). Brassicaceae species synthesize a variety of secondary compounds known as glucosinolates (GSLs), which upon hydrolysis are converted into biologically active compounds known as isothiocyanates (ITCs). These ITCs are volatile compounds and therefore can be used for soil fumigation. However, Brassicaceae crops are rarely comparable to MeBr in terms of weed control, partially because of low and inconsistent ITC production and weed control, especially poor efficacy on nutsedge species. This chapter compares the biofumigation potential of various Brassicaceae cover crops and discusses the factors affecting the weed control from biofumigation in plasticulture production. In addition, this chapter describes the successful integration of synthetic ITCs and plastic mulches for weed control in commercial plasticulture production.


Allelochemicals Biofumigation Brassicaceae cover crops Methyl bromide alternatives Purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.) Yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L.) Virtually impermeable film 







Low-density polyethylene mulch


Methyl bromide


Virtually impermeable film mulch


  1. 1.
    Schrader WL (2000) Plasticulture in California vegetable production. Accessed 20 Dec 2015
  2. 2.
    Donald WW (2000) Between-row mowing + in-row band-applied herbicides for weed control in Glycine max. Weed Sci 48:487–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Boydston RA, Hang A (1995) Rapeseed (Brassica napus) green manure crop suppresses weeds in potato (Solanum tuberosum). Weed Technol 9:669–675Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Krishnan G, Holshouser DL, Nissen SJ (1998) Weed control in soybean (Glycine max) with green manure crops. Weed Technol 12:97–112Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Vaughn SF, Boydston RA (1997) Volatile allelochemicals released by crucifer green manures. J Chem Ecol 23:2107–2116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fenwick GR, Heaney RK, Mullin WJ (1983) Glucosinolates and their breakdown products in food and food plants. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 18:123–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Brown PD, Morra MJ (1995) Glucosinolate-containing plant tissues as bioherbicides. J Agri Food Chem 43:3070–3074CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Brown PD, Morra MJ (1996) Hydrolysis products of glucosinolates in Brassica napus tissues as inhibitors of seed germination. Plant Soil 181:307–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Haramoto ER, Gallandt ER (2005) Brassica cover cropping: II. Effects on growth and interference of green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus). Weed Sci 53:702–708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Norsworthy JK, Brandenberger L, Burgos NR, Riley MB (2005) Weed suppression in Vigna unguiculata with a spring seeded Brassicaceae green manure. Crop Prot 24:441–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Norsworthy JK, Meehan JV (2005) Herbicidal activity of eight isothiocyanates on Texas panicum (Panicum texanum), large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis), and sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia). Weed Sci 53:515–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Norsworthy JK, Meehan JV (2005) Use of isothiocyanates for suppression of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri), pitted morningglory (Ipomoea lacunosa), and yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus). Weed Sci 53:884–890CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Peterson J, Belz R, Walker F, Hurle K (2001) Weed suppression by release of isothiocyanates from turnip-rape mulch. Agron J 93:37–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Norsworthy JK, Malik MS, Jha P, Oliveira MJ (2006) Effect of isothiocyanates on purple (Cyperus rotundus L.) and yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L.). Weed Biol Manag 6:131–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Santos BM, Gilreath JP, Siham MN (2007) Comparing fumigant retention of polyethylene mulches for nutsedge control in Florida spodosols. HortTechnol 17:308–311Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Swiader JM, McCollum JP, Ware G (1992) Producing vegetable crops, 4th edn. Interstate Publishers, DanvilleGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chase CA, Sinclair TR, Shilling DG, Gilreath JP, Locascio SJ (1998) Light effects on rhizome morphogenesis in nutsedges (Cyperus spp.): implications for control by soil solarization. Weed Sci 46:575–580Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Holm LG, Plucknett DL, Pancho JV, Herberger JP (1977) The world’s worst weeds, distribution and biology. University Press of Hawaii, HonoluluGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Patterson DT (1998) Suppression of purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) with polyethylene film mulch. Weed Technol 12:275–280Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Keeley PE (1987) Interference and interaction of purple and yellow nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus and C. esculentus) with crops. Weed Technol 1:74–81Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Morales-Payan JP, Santos BM, Stall WM, Bewick TA (1998) Interference of purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) population densities on bell pepper (Capsicum annum) yield as influenced by nitrogen. Weed Technol 12:230–234Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Morales-Payan JP, Stall WM, Shilling DG, Charuddattan R, Dusky JA, Bewick TA (2003) Above- and belowground interference of purple and yellow nutsedge (Cyperus spp.) with tomato. Weed Sci 51:181–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Motis TN, Locascio SJ, Gilreath JP, Stall WM (2003) Season-long interference of yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) with polyethylene-mulched bell pepper (Capsicum annum). Weed Technol 17:543–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    William RD, Warren GF (1975) Competition between purple nutsedge and vegetables. Weed Sci 23:317–323Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Benedixen LE, Nandihalli UB (1987) Worldwide distribution of purple and yellow nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus and C. esculentus). Weed Technol 1:61–65Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Stoller EW, Sweet RD (1987) Biology and life cycle of purple and yellow nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus and C. esculentus). Weed Technol 1:66–73Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Horowitz M (1972) Growth, tuber formation, and spread of Cyperus rotundus from single tubers. Weed Res 12:348–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Smith AE (1972) Developmental variation in carbohydrates of purple nutsedge. J Range Manage 24:125–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Stoller EW, Weber EJ (1975) Differential cold tolerance, starch, sugar, protein, and lipid of yellow and purple nutsedge tubers. Plant Physiol 55:859–863CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Rao JS (1968) Studies of the development of tubers in nutgrass and their starch content at different depths of soil. Madras Agric J 55:18–23Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Webster TM (2005) Mulch type affect the growth and tuber production of yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) and purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus). Weed Sci 53:834–838CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Drost DC, Doll JD (1980) The allelopathic effect of yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) on corn (Zea mays) and soybeans (Glycine max). Weed Sci 28:229–233Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Tumbleson ME, Kommedahl T (1961) Reproductive potential of Cyperus esculentus by tubers. Weeds 9:646–653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Neeser C, Aguero R, Swanton CJ (1997) Survival and dormancy of purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) tubers. Weed Sci 45:784–790Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Anderson WP (1999) Perennial weeds: characteristics and identification of selected herbaceous species, 1st edn. Iowa State University Press, AmesGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Stoller EW, Nema DP, Bhan VM (1972) Yellow nutsedge tuber development and seedling development. Weed Sci 20:93–97Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Duniway JM (2002) Status of chemical alternatives of methyl bromide for pre-plant fumigation in soil. Phytopathology 92:1337–1343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ross MA, Lembi CA (1985) Applied weed science, 1st edn. Burgess, Minneapolis, pp 212–213Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Yates SR, Ernst FF, Gan J, Gao F, Yates MV (1996) Methyl bromide emission from a covered field: II. Volatilization. J Environ Qual 25:192–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Anonymous (2015) Montreal protocol. Accessed 12 Nov 2015
  41. 41.
    United States Environmental Protection Agency [USEPA] (2016) Ozone layer depletion – regulatory programs: the phaseout of methyl bromide Montreal protocol. Accessed 8 Jan 2016
  42. 42.
    United States Environmental Protection Agency [USEPA] (2016) Ozone layer depletion – regulatory programs: critical use exemption information. Accessed 8 Jan 2016
  43. 43.
    Webster TM (2006) Weed survey – southern states: vegetable, fruit and nut crops subsection. Proc South Weed Sci Soc 59:260–277Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ajwa HA, Trout T, Mueller J, Wilhelm S, Nelson SD, Soppe R, Shatley D (2002) Application of alternative fumigants through drip irrigation systems. Phytopathology 92:1349–1355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gilreath JP, Santos BM, Siham MN, Vaculin P, Herrington M (2006) Effect of VIF on metam, chloropicrin, and 1,3-dichloropicrin alone and in combination on nutsedge population. HortScience 41:506Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Santos BM, Gilreath JP, Motis TN (2006) Impact of chloropicrin on nutsedge emergence through polyethylene mulch. HortTechnol 16:30–32Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Pereira W, Crabtree G, William RD (1987) Herbicide action on purple and yellow nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus and C. esculentus). Weed Technol 1:92–98Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Fennimore SA, Doohan DJ (2008) The challenges of specialty crop weed control, future directions. Weed Technol 22:364–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Mohler CL, Teasdale JR (1993) Response of weed emergence to rate of Vicia villosa Roth and Secale cereale L. residue. Weed Res 33:487–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Teasdale JR, Mohler CL (1993) Light transmittance, soil temperature, and soil moisture under residue of hairy vetch and rye. Agron J 85:673–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Weston LA (1996) Utilization of allelopathy for weed management in agroecosystems. Agron J 88:860–866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Beckie HJ, Johnson EN, Blackshaw RE, Gan Y (2008) Weed suppression by canola and mustard cultivars. Weed Technol 22:182–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Brennan EB, Smith RF (2005) Winter cover crop growth and weed suppression on the central coast of California. Weed Technol 19:1017–1024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Neeser C, Aguero R, Swanton CJ (1997) Incident photosynthetically active radiation as a basis for integrated management of purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus). Weed Sci 45:777–783Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Santos BM, Morales-Payan JP, Stall WM, Bewick TA, Shilling DG (1997) Effects of shading on the growth of nutsedges (Cyperus spp.). Weed Sci 45:670–673Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Stivers-Young L (1998) Growth, nitrogen accumulation, and weed suppression by fall cover crops following early harvest of vegetables. HortScience 33:60–63Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Al-Khatib K, Libbey C, Boydston R (1998) Weed suppression with Brassica green manure crops in green pea. Weed Sci 45:439–445Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Eberlein CV, Morra MJ, Guttieri MJ, Brown PD, Brown J (1998) Glucosinolate production by five field-grown Brassica napus cultivars used as green manures. Weed Technol 12:712–718Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Norsworthy JK (2003) Allelopathic potential of wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum). Weed Technol 17:307–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Wood JL (1975) Chemistry and biochemistry of thiocyanate acid and its derivatives. In: Newman AA (ed) Biochemistry. Academic, London, pp 156–221Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Borek V, Elberson LR, McCaffrey JP, Morra MJ (1998) Toxicity of isothiocyanates produced by glucosinolates in Brassicaceae species to black vine weevil eggs. J Agri Food Chem 46:5318–5323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    McCaffrey JP, Williams L, Borek V, Brown PD, Morra MJ (1995) Toxicity of ionic thiocyanate-amended soil to the wireworm, Limonius californicus. J Econ Entomol 88:793–797CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Williams L, Morra M, Brown P, McCaffrey J (1993) Toxicity of allyl isothiocyanate-amended soil to Limonius californicus (Mann.) Coleoptera: Elateridae) wireworms. J Chem Ecol 19:1033–1046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Ahman I (1986) Toxicities of host secondary compounds to eggs of the Brassica specialist Dasineura brassicae. J Chem Ecol 12:1481–1488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    McCloskey C, Isman MB (1993) Influence of foliar glucosinolates in oilseed rape and mustard on feeding and growth of the Bertha armyworm, Mamestra configurata Walker. J Chem Ecol 19:249–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Lazzeri L, Tacconi R, Palmieri S (1993) In vitro activity of some glucosinolates and their reaction products toward a population of the nematode Heterodera schachtii. J Agri Food Chem 41:825–829CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Lear B (1956) Results of laboratory experiments with Vapam for control of nematodes. Plant Dis Rep 40:847–852Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Mojtahedi H, Santo GS, Hang AN, Wilson JH (1991) Suppression of root-knot nematode populations with selected rapeseed cultivars as green manures. J Nematol 23:170–174Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Potter MJ, Davies K, Rathjen AJ (1998) Suppressive impact of glucosinolates in Brassica vegetative tissues on root lesion nematode Pratylenchus neglectus. J Chem Ecol 24:67–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Harvey SG, Hannahan HN, Sams CE (2002) Indian mustard and allyl isothiocyanate inhibit Sclerotium rolfsii. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 127:27–31Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Muehlchen AM, Rand RE, Parke JL (1990) Evaluation of crucifer green manures for controlling root rot of peas. Plant Dis 64:651–654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Sarwar M, Kirkegaard JA, Wong PTW, Desmarchelier JM (1998) Biofumigation potential of brassicas. Part III: in vitro toxicity of isothiocyanates to soil-borne fungal pathogens. Plant Soil 201:103–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Smolinska U, Knudsen GR, Morra MJ, Borek V (1997) Inhibition of Aphanomyces euteiches f. sp. pisi by volatile allelochemicals from Brassica napus seed meal. Plant Soil 81:288–292Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Kirkegaard JA, Sarwar M (1998) Biofumigation potential of Brassicas. I. Variation in glucosinolate profiles of diverse field-grown Brassicas. Plant Soil 201:71–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Matthiessen JN, Kirkegaard JA (2006) Biofumigation and enhanced biodegradation: opportunity and challenge in soilborne pest and disease management. Crit Rev Plant Sci 25:235–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Chew FS (1988) Biological effects of glucosinolates. In: Cutler HG (ed) Biologically active natural products: potential use in agriculture, vol 380, ACS symposium series. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp 155–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Bjorkman R (1976) Properties and function of plant myrosinase. In: Vaughan JG, MacLeod AJ, Jones BMG (eds) The biology and chemistry of the Cruciferae. Academic, London, pp 191–203Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Bell DT, Muller CH (1973) Dominance of California annual grasslands by Brassica nigra. Am Midl Nat 90:277–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Drobnica L, Kristian P, Augustin J (1977) The chemistry of the NCS group. In: Patai S (ed) The chemistry of cyanates and their derivatives, part 2. Wiley, New York, pp 1003–1197Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Kirkegaard JA, Sarwar M (1999) Glucosinolate profiles of Australian canola (Brassica napus annua L) and Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L) cultivars: implications for biofumigation. Aust J Agric Res 50:315–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Haramoto ER, Gallandt ER (2005) Brassica cover cropping: I. Effects of weed and crop establishment. Weed Sci 53:695–701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Norsworthy JK, Malik MS, Jha P, Riley MB (2007) Suppression of Digitaria sanguinalis and Amaranthus palmeri using autumn-sown glucosinolate-producing cover crops in organically grown bell pepper. Weed Res 47:425–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Norsworthy JK, Meehan JT (2005) Wild radish-amended soil effects on yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) interference with tomato and bell pepper. Weed Sci 53:77–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Zasada IA, Ferris H (2004) Nematode suppression with brassicaceous amendments: application based upon glucosinolate profiles. Soil Biol Biochem 36:1017–1024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Rice AR, Johnson-Maynard JL, Thill DC, Morra MJ (2007) Vegetable crop emergence and weed control following amendment with different Brassicaceae seed meals. Renewable Agric Food Syst 22:204–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Gimsing AN, Kirkegaard JA (2006) Glucosinolate and isothiocyanate concentration in soil following incorporation of Brassica biofumigants. Soil Biol Biochem 38:2255–2264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Malik MS, Riley MB, Norsworthy JK, Bridges W (2010) Variation of glucosinolates in wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum) accessions. J Agric Food Chem 58:11628–11632Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Haramoto ER, Gallandt ER (2004) Brassica cover cropping for weed management: a review. Renewable Agric Food Syst 19:187–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Mattner SW, Porter IJ, Gounder RK, Shanks AL, Wren DJ, Allen D (2008) Factors that impact on the ability of biofumigants to suppress fungal pathogens and weeds of strawberry. Crop Prot 27:1165–1173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Sarwar M, Kirkegaard JA (1998) Biofumigation potential of brassicas. II – Effect of environment and ontogeny on glucosinolate production and implications for screening. Plant Soil 201:91–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Rosa EAS, Heaney RK, Fenwick GR, Portas CAM (1997) Glucosinolates in crop plants. Hortic Rev 19:99–215Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Bangarwa SK, Norsworthy JK, Mattice JD, Gbur EE (2011) Glucosinolate and isothiocyanate production from Brassicaceae cover crops in a plasticulture production system. Weed Sci 59:247–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    MacLeod AJ, Nussbaum ML (1977) The effects of differential horticultural practices on the chemical flavor composition of some cabbage cultivars. Phytochem 16:861–865CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Borek VM, Morra J, Brown PD, McCaffrey JP (1995) Transformation of the glucosinolate-derived allelochemicals allyl isothiocyanate and allyl nitrile in soil. J Agric Food Chem 43:1935–1940CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Gardiner JB, Morra MJ, Eberlein CV, Brown PD, Borek V (1999) Allelochemicals released in soil following incorporation of rapeseed (Brassica napus) green manures. J Agric Food Chem 47:3837–3842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Morra M, Kirkegaard JA (2002) Isothiocyanate release from soil-incorporated Brassica tissues. Soil Biol Biochem 34:1683–1690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Wolf RB, Spencer GF, Kwolek WF (1984) Inhibition of velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) germination and growth by benzyl isothiocyanate, a natural toxicant. Weed Sci 32:612–615Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Bialy Z, Oleszek W, Lewis J, Fenwick GR (1990) Allelopathic potential of glucosinolates (mustard oil glycosides) and their degradation products against wheat. Plant Soil 129:277–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Matthiessen JN, Shackleton MA (2005) Biofumigation: environmental impacts on the biological activity of diverse pure and plant-derived isothiocyanates. Pest Manag Sci 61:1043–1051CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Kirkegaard JA, Gardner PA, Angus JF, Koetz E (1994) Effect of Brassica break crops on the growth and yield of wheat. Aust J Agric Res 45:539–545Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Lazzeri L, Baruzzi G, Malaguti L, Antoniacci L (2003) Replacing methyl bromide in annual strawberry production with glucosinolate-containing green manure crops. Pest Manag Sci 59:983–990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Teasdale JR, Taylorson RB (1986) Weed seed response to methyl isothiocyanate and metham. Weed Sci 34:520–524Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Boublik T, Fried V, Hala E (1973) The vapor pressure of pure substances. Elsevier, AmesterdamGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Saeed IAM, Rouse DI, Harkin JM (2000) Methyl isothiocyanate volatilization from fields treated with metam-sodium. Pest Manag Sci 56:813–817CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Brown PD, Morra MJ (1997) Control of soil-borne plant pests using glucosinolate-containing plants. Adv Agron 61:167–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Price AJ, Charron CS, Saxton AM, Sams CE (2005) Allyl isothiocyanate and carbon dioxide produced during degradation of Brassica juncea tissue in different soil conditions. HortScience 40:1734–1739Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Primo PD, Gamliel A, Austerweil M, Steiner B, Beniches M, Peretz-Alon I, Katan J (2003) Accelerated degradation of metam sodium and dazomet in soil: characterization and consequences for pathogen control. Crop Prot 22:635–646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Smelt JH, Crum SJH, Teunissen WH (1989) Accelerated transformation of the fumigant methyl isothiocyanate in soil after repeated applications of metham-sodium. J Environ Sci Health 24:437–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Bangarwa SK, Norsworthy JK, Gbur EE (2009) Integration of a Brassicaceae cover crop with herbicides in plasticulture tomato. Weed Technol 23:280–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Bangarwa SK, Norsworthy JK, Gbur EE (2009) Cover crop and herbicide combinations for weed control in polyethylene-mulched bell pepper. HortTechnol 19:405–410Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Bangarwa SK, Norsworthy JK, Mattice JD, Gbur EE (2011) Yellow nutsedge interference in polyethylene-mulched bell pepper as influenced by turnip soil amendment. Weed Technol 25:466–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Bangarwa SK, Norsworthy JK, Gbur EE (2012) Effect of turnip soil amendment on yellow nutsedge interference in polyethylene-mulched tomato. Weed Technol 26:364–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Bangarwa SK, Norsworthy JK, Rainey RL, Gbur EE (2010) Economic returns in plasticulture tomato production from Brassicaceae cover crops as a methyl bromide alternative for weed management. Hort Technol 20(20):764–771Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Malik MS, Norsworthy JK, Culpepper AS, Riley MB, Bridges W (2008) Use of wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum) and rye cover crops for weed suppression in sweet corn. Weed Sci 56:588–595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Uremis I, Arslan M, Uludag A, Sangun MKL (2009) Allelopathic potentials of residues of six Brassica species on johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense). Afr J Biotechnol 8:3497–3501Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Birch ANE, Griffiths DW, Hopkins RJ, Smith WHM, Mckinlay RG (1992) Glucosinolate response of swede, kale, forage and oilseed rape to root damage by turnip root fly (Delia floralis) larvae. J Sci Food Agric 60:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Clark A (2007) Managing cover corps profitably, 3rd edn. Sustainable Agriculture Network, Beltsville, pp 81–84Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Hartz TK, Johnstone PR, Miyao EM, Davis RM (2005) Mustard cover crops are ineffective in suppressing soilborne disease or improving processing tomato yield. HortScience 40:2016–2019Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Lazzeri L, Manici L (2001) Allelopathic effect of glucosinolate-containing plant green manure on Pythium sp. and total fungal population in soil. HortScience 36:1283–1289Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Roubtsova T, Lopez-Perez JA, Edwards S, Ploeg A (2007) Effect of broccoli (Brassica oleracea) tissue, incorporated at different depths in a soil column, on Meloidogyne incognita. J Nematol 39:111–117Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Angus JF, van Herwaaden AF, Howe GN (1994) Productivity and break-crop effect of winter growing oilseeds. Aust J Exp Agric 31:669–677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Yates SR, Gan J, Papiernik SK, Dungan R, Wang D (2002) Reducing the fumigant emission after soil application. Phytopathology 92:1344–1348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Wang D, Yates SR, Ernst FF, Gan J, Jury WA (1997) Reducing methyl bromide emission with a high barrier plastic film and reduced dosages. Environ Sci Technol 31:3686–3691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Santos BM, Gilreath JP, Siham MN, Esmel CE (2006) Methyl bromide rate reduction and mulch effect on nutsedge control. HortScience 41:505–506Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Ajwa HA (2005) Evaluation of fumigant efficacy with VIF plastic. Accessed 7 Jan 2016
  126. 126.
    Cal D, Martinez-Treceno A, Lopez-Aranda JM, Melgarejo P (2004) Chemical alternatives to methyl bromide in Spanish strawberry nurseries. Plant Dis 88:210–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Motis TN, Gilreath JP, Noling JW (2003) Nutsedge control and bell pepper production with reduced rates of methyl bromide applied under virtually impermeable film. Proc South Weed Sci Soc 56:110Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Austerweil M, Steiner B, Gamliel A (2006) Permeation of soil fumigants through agricultural plastic films. Phytoparasitica 34:491–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Locascio SJ, Dickson DW, Rosskopf E (2001) Alternative fumigants applied with PE and VIF mulches for tomato. In: Proceedings 2001 annual international research conference on methyl bromide alternatives and emissions reductions. San Diego, California, pp 17.1–17.4Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Bangarwa SK, Norsworthy JK, Gbur EE, Mattice JD (2010) Phenyl isothiocyanate performance on purple nutsedge under virtually impermeable mulch. HortTechnol 20:402–408Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Bangarwa SK, Norsworthy JK (2014) Purple nutsedge control with allyl isothiocyanate under virtually impermeable film mulch. Weed Technol 28:200–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Bangarwa SK, Norsworthy JK, Gbur EE, Zhang J, Habtom T (2011) Allyl isothiocyanate: a methyl bromide replacement in polyethylene-mulched bell pepper. Weed Technol 25:90–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Bangarwa SK, Norsworthy JK, Gbur EE (2012) Allyl Isothiocyanate as a methyl bromide alternative for weed management in polyethylene-mulched tomato. Weed Technol 26:449–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Bangarwa SK, Norsworthy JK, Gbur EE (2012) Comparison of the herbicidal activity of phenyl isothiocyanate with methyl bromide in polyethylene-mulched tomato. Weed Technol 26:666–672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Bangarwa SK, Norsworthy JK, Gbur EE (2012) Herbicidal performance of phenyl isothiocyanate in polyethylene-mulched bell pepper. Weed Technol 26:763–768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Goldy R (2012) Double cropping in a plasticulture system. Accessed 8 Jan 2016
  137. 137.
    Hadiri NE, Ammati M, Chgoura M, Mounir K (2003) Behavior of methyl isothiocyanate in soils under field conditions in Morocco. Chemosphere 52:927–932CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Noling JW, Botts DA, McRae AW (2011) Alternatives to methyl bromide soil fumigation for Florida vegetable production. Accessed 8 Mar 2012
  139. 139.
    Noling JW (2002) The practical realities of alternative of methyl bromide: concluding remarks. Phytopathology 92:1373–1375CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Crop, Soil, and Environmental SciencesUniversity of ArkansasFayettevilleUSA

Personalised recommendations