Glucosinolates pp 319-337 | Cite as

Sulforaphane and Atherosclerosis

  • Pon Velayutham Anandh BabuEmail author
  • Chrissa PetersenEmail author
  • Zhenquan JiaEmail author
Reference work entry
Part of the Reference Series in Phytochemistry book series (RSP)


Epidemiological studies have found associations between cruciferous vegetable consumption and reduced risk of chronic conditions, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cancer. Sulforaphane, a molecule found in its precursor state in cruciferous and other vegetables, is the focus of much current nutritional interest. Others and we have recently reported the beneficial cardiovascular effects of sulforaphane and the possible molecular mechanisms involved. Sulforaphane improved cardiovascular complications such as vascular inflammation, hypertension, and atherosclerosis in animal models. Evidence shows that sulforaphane may exert the beneficial cardiovascular effects by acting on multiple targets such as (i) activating Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1)/nuclear factor [erythroid-derived 2]-like 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway, (ii) inhibiting inflammatory pathways, and (iii) regulating lipid metabolism. However, human studies related to the vascular effects of sulforaphane and cruciferous vegetables are lacking. Hence, well-designed human trials may be needed to evaluate the cardiovascular effects of sulforaphane and cruciferous vegetables and to recommend cruciferous vegetables, to improve cardiovascular health. This chapter provides an overview of recent developments toward the understanding of cardioprotective effects of sulforaphane and the molecular mechanisms involved.


Sulforaphane Vascular disease Nrf2 Atherosclerosis Cruciferous vegetables Endothelium Cardioprotective 



Antioxidant response element


CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein


Cardiovascular disease


Glutamate-cysteine ligase


γ-Glutamyl cysteine synthetase


Glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit


Glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit


Glutathione peroxidase


Glutathione reductase




High-density lipoprotein


Heme oxygenase-1


Intracellular adhesion molecule-1


Inhibitor of NFĸB


IĸB kinase




Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1


Low-density lipoprotein




Mitogen-activated protein kinase


Monocyte chemotactic protein-1


Nuclear factor ĸB


NADPH quinone oxidoreductase


Nuclear factor [erythroid-derived 2]-like 2


Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ


Reactive oxygen species


Spontaneously hypertensive rats


Spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone


Smooth muscle cells


Superoxide dismutase


Toll-like receptor


Tumor necrosis factor-α


Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1


Vascular smooth muscle cells

WKY rats

Wistar Kyoto rats


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Nutrition and Integrative Physiology, College of HealthUniversity of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA
  2. 2.Department of BiologyUniversity of North Carolina at GreensboroGreensboroUSA

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