Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences

2020 Edition
| Editors: Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Todd K. Shackelford

Cognitive-Affective Processing System

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-24612-3_1788
  • 12 Downloads

Synonyms

Definition

While the distinction between emotions and reason dates back to Aristotle (1954), contemporary social psychologists have continued to rely on this distinction, especially in the domain of attitudes and persuasion. That is, people’s affect (e.g., feeling happy) and cognition (e.g., belief about usefulness) have been conceptualized as separate components or bases of overall attitudes, which refer to the global evaluations of issues, objects, persons, or groups on a valence dimension ranging from negative to positive (e.g., Rosenberg and Hovland 1960; Zanna and Rempel 1988). In addition, much empirical evidence has demonstrated that affect (i.e., emotions) and cognition (i.e., beliefs) contribute to unique variances in attitudes (e.g., Abelson et al. 1982; Breckler 1984; Crites et al. 1994; Trafimow and Sheeran 1998). Importantly, there are no assumptions about the mental effort that is requiredto process emotions or beliefs. That...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Abelson, R. P., Kinder, D. R., Peters, M. D., & Fiske, S. T. (1982). Affective and semantic components in political person perception. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42(4), 619.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.42.4.619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aquino, A., Haddock, G., Maio, G. R., Wolf, L. J., & Alparone, F. R. (2016). The role of affective and cognitive individual differences in social perception. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 42, 798–810.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Aristotle, R. (1954). The basic works of Aristotle. (trans: Rhys Roberts, W., Ed. McKeon, R.). New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  4. Axsom, D., Yates, S., & Chaiken, S. (1987). Audience response as a heuristic cue in persuasion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 30–40.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Breckler, S. J. (1984). Empirical validation of affect, behavior, and cognition as distinct components of attitude. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 1191–1205.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Cacioppo, J. T., & Petty, R. E. (1982). The need for cognition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, 116–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cacioppo, J. T., Petty, R. E., Feinstein, J. A., & Jarvis, W. B. G. (1996). Dispositional differences in cognitive motivation: The life and times of individuals varying in need for cognition. Psychological Bulletin, 119, 197–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Carstensen, L. L., Isaacowitz, D. M., & Charles, S. T. (1999). Taking time seriously: A theory of socioemotional selectivity. American Psychologist, 54, 165–181.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Chaiken, S., Pomerantz, E. M., & Giner-Sorolla, R. (1995). Structural consistency and attitude strength. In R. E. Petty & J. A. Krosnick (Eds.), Attitude strength: Antecedents and consequences (pp. 387–412). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  10. Crites, S. L. J., Fabrigar, L. R., & Petty, R. E. (1994). Measuring the affective and cognitive properties of attitudes: Conceptual and methodological issues. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 20, 619–634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. DeSteno, D., Petty, R. E., Rucker, D. D., Wegener, D. T., & Braverman, J. (2004). Discrete emotions and persuasion: The role of emotion-induced expectancies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86, 43–56.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Eagly, A. H., Mladinic, A., & Otto, S. (1994). Cognitive and affective bases of attitudes toward social groups and social policies. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 30, 113–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Esses, V. M., Haddock, G., & Zanna, M. (1993). Values, stereotypes, and emotions as determinants of intergroup attitudes. In D. M. Mackie & D. L. Hamilton (Eds.), Affect, cognition, and stereotyping: Interactive processes in group perception (pp. 137–166). Burlington: Elsevier Science.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fabrigar, L. R., & Petty, R. E. (1999). The role of the affective and cognitive bases of attitudes in susceptibility to affectively and cognitively based persuasion. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25, 363–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fiske, S. T., Cuddy, A. J. C., & Glick, P. (2007). Universal dimensions of social cognition: Warmth and competence. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11, 77–83.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Fung, H. H., & Carstensen, L. L. (2003). Sending memorable messages to the old: Age differences in preferences and memory for advertisements. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 163–178.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Giner-Sorolla, R. (2001). Guilty pleasures and grim necessities: Affective attitudes in dilemmas of self-control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 206–221.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Haddock, G., & Zanna, M. P. (1993). Predicting prejudicial attitudes: The importance of affect, cognition, and the feeling-belief dimension. Advances in Consumer Research, 20, 315–318.Google Scholar
  19. Haddock, G., Maio, G. R., Arnold, K., & Huskinson, T. (2008). Should persuasion be affective or cognitive? The moderating effects of need for affect and need for cognition. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 769–778.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Haugtvedt, C. P., Petty, R. E., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1992). Need for cognition and advertising. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 1, 239–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Huskinson, T. L. H., & Haddock, G. (2004). Individual differences in attitude structure: Variance in the chronic reliance on affective and cognitive information. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 40, 82–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Keer, M., van den Putte, B., de Wit, J., & Neijens, P. (2013). The effects of integrating instrumental and affective arguments in rhetorical and testimonial health messages. Journal of Health Communication, 18, 1148–1161.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Larsen, R. J., & Diener, E. (1987). Affect intensity as an individual difference characteristic: A review. Journal of Research in Personality, 21, 1–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Maio, G. R., & Esses, V. M. (2001). The need for affect: Individual differences in the motivation to approach or avoid emotions. Journal of Personality, 69, 583–614.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Petty, R. E., Schumann, D. W., Richman, S. A., & Strathman, A. J. (1993). Positive mood and persuasion: Different roles for affect under high- and low-elaboration conditions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 5–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Petty, R. E., Briñol, P., Loersch, C., & McCaslin, M. J. (2009). The need for cognition. In M. R. Leary & R. H. Hoyle (Eds.), Handbook of individual differences in social behavior (pp. 318–329). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  27. Rocklage, M. D., & Fazio, R. H. (2015). The evaluative lexicon: Adjective use as a means of assessing and distinguishing attitude valence, extremity, and emotionality. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 56, 214–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Rosenberg, M. J., & Hovland, C. I. (1960). Cognitive, affective, and behavioral components of attitudes. In M. J. Rosenberg et al. (Eds.), Attitude organization and change (pp. 1–14). New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  29. See, Y. H. M., Petty, R. E., & Fabrigar, L. R. (2008). Affective and cognitive meta-bases of attitudes: Unique effects on information interest and persuasion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94, 938–955.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. See, Y. H. M., Petty, R. E., & Evans, L. M. (2009). The impact of perceived message complexity and need for cognition on information processing and attitudes. Journal of Research in Personality, 43, 880–889.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. See, Y. H. M., Petty, R. E., & Fabrigar, L. R. (2013a). Affective–cognitive meta-bases versus structural bases of attitudes predict processing interest versus efficiency. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39, 1111–1123.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. See, Y. H. M., Valenti, G., Ho, A. Y. Y., & Tan, M. S. Q. (2013b). When message tailoring backfires: The role of initial attitudes in affect–cognition matching. European Journal of Social Psychology, 43, 570–584.Google Scholar
  33. Tan, K., See, Y. H. M., & Agnew, C. R. (2015). Partner’s understanding of affective–cognitive meta-bases predicts relationship quality. Personal Relationships, 22, 524–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Trafimow, D., & Sheeran, P. (1998). Some tests of the distinction between cognitive and affective beliefs. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 34, 378–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wegener, D. T., Petty, R. E., & Klein, D. J. (1994). Effects of mood on high elaboration attitude change: The mediating role of likelihood judgments. European Journal of Social Psychology, 24, 25–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wolf, L. J., von Hecker, U., & Maio, G. R. (2017). Affective and cognitive orientations in intergroup perception. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 43, 828–844.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. Zanna, M. P., & Rempel, J. K. (1988). Attitudes: A new look at an old concept. In D. Bar-Tal & A. W. Kruglanski (Eds.), The social psychology of knowledge (pp. 315–334). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore

Section editors and affiliations

  • Catherine Cottrell
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Social SciencesNew College of FloridaSarasotaUSA