Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences

2020 Edition
| Editors: Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Todd K. Shackelford

Self-Efficacy Theory

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-24612-3_1167



Self-efficacy theory explains how self-efficacy develops and is altered, as well as how self-efficacy impacts behavioral change, performance accomplishments, and personal well-being.


In 1977 Albert Bandura introduced his social-cognitive theory and self-efficacy theory, in which he proposed that self-efficacy and outcome expectancies are key to behavior initiation and maintenance (see Fig. 1). While self-efficacy was deemed to be especially central for goal setting, enactment, and attainment, self-efficacy was also a reliable target in treatments. Accordingly, his self-efficacy theory, in greater detail, outlined which sources impact self-efficacy expectations (Fig. 2).

Historical Development

Albert Bandura incorporated the concept of self-efficacy into his social learning theory, which he authored in the 1960s. While Bandura drew on concepts like perceived control (Skinner 1996), he extended...

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychology and MethodsJacobs University BremenBremenGermany

Section editors and affiliations

  • Christian Jordan
    • 1
  1. 1.Wilfrid Laurier UniversityWaterlooCanada