The Eastern Arctic Seas Encyclopedia

2016 Edition
| Editors: Igor S. Zonn, Andrey G. Kostianoy, Aleksandr V. Semenov

Bay of Nolde, Nolde Bay

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-24237-8_58

Bay of Nolde, Nolde Bay – a relatively large bay in the East Siberian Sea limited in the north and northeast by Aachim Peninsula; the depth is 1.5–2.5 m, extended to 15 km from the southeast to the northwest; the width of the bay is 7 km in the transverse section. The total area is 1,000 km2. The ridges approaching the bay in the west and southeast are composed of Triassic sandstones and shales. The highest point is Perkayon (302.8 m). In the vicinity of B.N., ancient rocks overlap younger ones due to tectonic movements. The delta of the small river of Keveem, composed of river alluvium, is located in the southern part of the bay. Aachim Peninsula, located at the north and northwest, is a plain area of approx. 150 km2, elevated by 15–35 m. The plain is composed of predominantly sandy and sandy loam soils. From the east, the Peninsula borders with the delta of the river Pegtymel (the area is approx. 250 km2); the length of this river is more than 300 km. In its younger part, the delta forms an alluvial terrace composed of sands at the level of 0.5–0.8 m. The older parts of the delta are elevated by 2–2.5 m and broken by the network of thermokarst lakes and canals.

The climate of the area is harsh, arctic. The average monthly air temperature, according to the weather stations at Cape Shelagsky and Cape Valkarkay, is −24.9 to −28.2 °C in December–March, the absolute minimum −45 °C. In winter there are constantly blowing strong winds and frequent blizzards (on average – 69 days). There are no frost-free periods in the area of B.N. In summer fogs are frequent; the average number of foggy days per year is 78. Strong winds blow continuously. Calm sunny weather rarely lasts for more than 1 day. The mean monthly air temperature is +1.7 °C in June, +3.2 °C in July, and +2.7 °C in August. Snow cover usually becomes steady at the end of September, but in some years, it may happen a month earlier.

A coastal polynya is formed in mid-June. For the period from July to September, the sea is ice-free, but drifting ice floes near the coast may appear at any time of the year. Often, the edge of the pack ice is located at a distance of 40–60 km from the coast.

The water area of B.N. is separated from the coastal edge by a narrow pebble beach and coastal lowland areas. Halophytic meadows are well developed here on muddy bottoms of sand-muddy shoals, above which there are sandy beach ridges with sparse grassland vegetation and driftwood rubbles.

It is named in honor of B.A. Nolde, a baron, captain of the 2nd rank.

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© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016