Ushakov, Pavel Vladimirovich (1903–1992)
Ushakov, Pavel Vladimirovich (1903–1992) – a prominent Soviet explorer of the Far Eastern Seas of Russia, a hydrobiologist, zoologist and oceanographer, Doctor of Biology, and professor. U. has made a significant contribution to marine life studies and the fauna of Polychaete worms of the Far Eastern Seas of Russia. In 1924, following his graduation from St. Petersburg University, U. went to work in Russian State Hydrological Institute (SHI) where he worked until 1936, taking part in numerous expeditions. In 1928 U. explored the Amur Liman and discovered its function as a natural barrier preventing a fauna exchange between the Sea of Okhotsk and the Sea of Japan. In 1929 he participated as a hydrobiologist in a scientific research expedition on the “Fyodor Litke” icebreaker from Vladivostok through the Bering Strait toward Wrangel Island. In 1931 U. set up the Kamchatka Marine Research Station of State Hydrological Institute which had conducted hydrobiological research in the Avacha Bay and in adjacent areas of East Kamchatka. In 1935, on the legendary “Krasin” icebreaker, U. succeeded in revealing the character of fauna exchange between the Chukchi and the Bering Seas. Special importance is attached to U.’s research conducted in the Sea of Okhotsk on the “Krasny Yakut” schooner as well as on the “Blyukher” and “Gagara” fishing trawlers in 1930–1932. It was the first time in the history of oceanology that trawling was made at the depth of 3,500 m.
In 1936 U. was awarded the degree of Doctor of Biology, and in 1939 he obtained the title of Professor. In 1936–1939 U. is the Deputy Director of the Murmansk Biological Station of the Academy of Sciences. Between 1939 and 1945, U. conducted research in the State Institute of Oceanography and in 1945 transferred to the Zoological Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences where he worked for 40 years.
In 1948 U. takes part in the Kuril-Sakhalin expedition and thereafter – in the compiling of the “Atlas of Oceanographic Basics of Fish Detection in South Sakhalin and South Kurils.” In 1949 U. again participated in an expedition to the Sea of Okhotsk and Prekuril waters of the Pacific on the “Vityaz” research vessel. This time U. succeeded in retrieving fauna species from the depth of 8,100 m.
U.’s findings are presented in over 200 publications. Among the most significant of them are Fauna of the Sea of Okhotsk and its habitats (1953) and Polychaete worms of the Far Eastern Seas of the USSR (1955). U. also served as an editor in many scientific publications including Explorations of the Far Eastern Seas of the USSR and Atlas of the Invertebrates of the Far Eastern Seas of the USSR.