The Eastern Arctic Seas Encyclopedia

2016 Edition
| Editors: Igor S. Zonn, Andrey G. Kostianoy, Aleksandr V. Semenov

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), Soviet Union

Reference work entry

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), Soviet Union – was a state which existed in 1922–1991 over the most part of the territory of the former Russian Empire. Under the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR (December 30, 1922), it comprised Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR); Transcaucasian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (TSFSR); since 1936 the Azerbaijan SSR; and others. Further on, the Turkmen SSR (1925), the Kazakh SSR (1938), and a number of other Soviet Republics were established.

In Viskuli (Bialowieza Forest) in December 8, 1991, heads of the Belorussian SSR, RSFSR, and the Ukrainian SSR signed the agreement that declared the USSR dissolved and established the Commonwealth of Independent States (CISs). Under the Declaration signed in December 21, 1991, in Almaty, 11 former Soviet republics, which became founders of the CIS (the three Baltic Republics had succeeded earlier, and Georgia joined the CIS in December 1993), guaranteed “fulfillment of international commitments, resulting from agreements and treaties of the former Soviet Union.” The same day the council of the CIS heads of state supported Russian “membership in the UN, including permanent membership in the Security Council and other international organisations, in succession to the USSR.” In December 25, 1991, the USSR stopped to exist as a subject of the international law.

Urvantsev N.N. (Source:

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