The Eastern Arctic Seas Encyclopedia

2016 Edition
| Editors: Igor S. Zonn, Andrey G. Kostianoy, Aleksandr V. Semenov

Tiksi

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-24237-8_526
  1. 1.

    A bay in the Laptev Sea, east off the Lena River Delta, south off the Bykhovskiy Peninsula. Its length is 21 km and width by the entrance is 17 km. The hydrographic conditions of the bay are favorable for navigation. The bay sports three small but conspicuous rocks, as if covering the entrance to it – Karaulnye Kamni. From west and south the bay is bounded by the mainland coast. The northern coast consists of soft rocks and fossil ice. The bay is covered with ice from October to July. In summer it is susceptible to large tidal fluctuations. Tides are semidiurnal, 0.3 m. T. was first mapped on Russia’s northern coast in 1739 by D.Y. Laptev as Gorelaya Guba, and since 1823 it has been called Tiksi (“the place where the land can be reached”). It is for trans-shipping roadstead for sea and river transportations of the Northern Sea Route. The port of Tiksi is located on the western coast of the bay. In 1902 the bay became the final abode of E. Toll’s schooner “Zarya.”

     
  2. 2.

    An urban locality (since 1939), the Sakha Republic (Yakutia). The population is around 4,560 people (2015). The settlement was based around the port of Tiksi. T. is located on the permafrost. The seaport is on the coast of Tiksi Bay (the Laptev Sea), near the Lena Delta (Bykovskaya Protoka). The airport belongs to the Defence Ministry. An air lane passes over Tiksi – around 15 planes follow from Europe to Asia, so a meteo station located there plays an important role. In the navigation period, steamers travel the Lena between T. and Yakutsk. The climate is harsh, with up to 120 days of snow storms a year. Average January temperature is −35°C, and June 11°C. Winter lasts 8 months, and summer, 2. The polar day is from 10 May to 2 August; the polar night is from 17 November to 25 January. Near T., in the Lena Delta, detention camps of the People’s Commissariat for Internal Affairs were located. Ship repairing facility. In T. offices of the Northern Sea Route, Arctic Ocean Company, a laboratory of the Space Physics Institute, the Administration of the State Hydrometeorological Committee, production center “Lamu” (national fur clothes, gifts), and People’s Museum of the Arctic Ocean Company (picture gallery and the department of the exploration of the Central Arctic coasts) are located. The historical part of the museum includes the history of the Arctic navigation in the eighteenth to twentieth centuries, the history of T., and the history of T. seaport and the Arctic Ocean Company; the exhibition also has ethnographic and paleontological branches; a monument in memory of M.I. Brusnev, an engineer exiled for political reasons, who took part in the expedition of V.A. Vollosovich.

     
  3. 3.

    The main seaport in the east of the Arctic Region. Located on the coast of the Laptev Sea, 120 km off the Lena Delta, in the low reach of which the Sangarskoye coal mine was situated. This was a prerequisite for creation of a bunkering base in T. It was decided to build port facilities on the southeast coast of Bulunkan Bay in the western part of Tiksi Bay. In 1934 the construction started in one of the least accessible areas. By 1941 T. became the third largest port after Igarka and Dudinka. At present this is a well-equipped facility with motor transport service and port vessels, transferring cargos from sea ships in a spring roadstead to river vessels for further transportation along rivers to settlement on the shores of the Khatanga, the Olenyok, the Yana, the Indigirka, and the Kolyma rivers. Anchorage is possible only off the shore. T. is the main base supporting sea cabotage in the eastern part of the Russian Arctic and the basis of the large transpolar settlement Tiksi, one of the key hubs of the Northern Sea Route, a large transfer base of cargo from the Lena River being transshipped from river to sea vessels, and their delivery to Pevek, the Yana, the Indigirka, the Kolyma, the Anabar, the Khatanga, and islands of the Arctic Basin. Construction materials, containers, coal, and flax are exported. Cargo transfer capacity is 0.5 mln tons a year. Apart from that, cargo operations are carried out in the Khatanga Bay, Nordvik, Kozhevnikova Bay, and in the mouth of the Yana – Nizhneyansk. The transfer of cargo for its further transportation along the rivers is located there. To reduce the waterway from the Lena Delta to the port of Tiksi, it was planned to dig the channel through Koytchev Isthmus, to connect Bykovskaya Protoka with Tiksi Bay through Neelov Gulf.

     

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