Reference work entry
Stamukha – fixed ice which remained on a shallow of the coast or on a stamik. S. can form on nameless banks, not designated on maps, at the depths over 20 m. The cases are known when S. was formed at a much bigger depth. Around S. ice belt is formed up to 10 miles and more. In summer S. melts and disintegrates, forming mass of crushed and chafed ice, dangerous for vessels, especially in poor visibility conditions. Such hummock ice in shoals of the Arctic Region is a hazard for navigation. The East Siberian Sea has the maximum quantity of S. in the Russian Arctic Region – 71 %, due to harsh weather conditions and shallowness of the sea. In the eastern part of the sea, the largest S. is registered with the maximum draft 35 m. S. often form in the southwest along the borderline of the land ice from the New Siberia Island to the Ayon Island, along the Chukchi coastline, and on banks to the west of the Wrangel Island.
© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016