Shalaurov, Nikita Pavlovich (?–1764)
Shalaurov, Nikita Pavlovich (?–1764) – Russian merchant from Ustyug, one of the first traders’ seamen, who were determined to explore the Northern Sea Route, and an Arctic explorer.
In 1748–1749 he performed the navigation from Anadyr stockade town to Nizhnekamchatskiy Island, having spent the winter on the Commander Islands. At the beginning of the 1750s, S. together with Ivan Bakhov submitted a claim to the government about searching for the Northern Sea Route from the Lena Delta to the Pacific. In 1755 the senate issued a decree, according to which S. and Bakhov were granted a vacation for the search. In the period from 1757 until 1762, he conducted the navigation from Yakutsk down the Lena and then to Cape Shelagskiy by sea on the vessels “Vera,” “Nadezhda,” and “Lyubov.” During the navigation of 1758, S’s vessel could only reach Cape Bykovsky. In 1759 the vessel left the Lena Delta and reached Cape Chokurdakh, where it was crushed in the ice and stranded at the distance of 12 km from the Yana Delta. S. made two winter breaks at the Kolyma during that period. His navigation in 1761–1762 resulted in mapping of 600 km of the East Siberian Sea coast from Cape Bolshoy Baranov to Cape Shelagsky; from the Kolyma River to the Chaun Bay, he also surveyed the Chaun Bay from Ayon Island and was the first to describe the character of the depth and salinity of the eastern part of the East Siberian Sea, determined the magnetic declination in a number of points, conducted sea current surveys, and was the first to draw a scheme of Bolshoy Lyakhovsky Island and the Medvezhiy Islands. In 1763 he went to Moscow and succeeded in making the senate to pass the decision on converting the expedition from a private enterprise to a state one. Before returning to Siberia, S. complied and submitted to the senate two documents: “Project of setting up of private and state-owned whaler and hunting companies in the North-East” and “News of the Chukchi people.” At the beginning of 1764, S. sent a report to St. Petersburg with the map of the eastern branch of the Kolyma “The Map of the right delta of the Kolyma complied on the way of the sea vessel “Vera,” “Nadezhda,” “Lyubov” ….” In July 1764, he repeated the attempt to cross the East Siberian Sea to the east to Cape Dezhnev, entering from the Kolyma Delta, and vanished together with his mates. According to one of the versions, S. died in the mouth of the Verona River, being the first after the trips of F. Alekseev (Popov) and S. Dezhnev to go beyond the meridian of Cape Shelagsky.
A mountain on the East Siberian Sea coast, to the east from the Chaun Bay, the cape on Bolshoy Lyakhovsky Island (the New Siberian Islands), an island and a cape (Shalaurov Izba) in the East Siberian Sea, and Shalaurov Island in the Kolyma Delta were named in his honor.