The Eastern Arctic Seas Encyclopedia

2016 Edition
| Editors: Igor S. Zonn, Andrey G. Kostianoy, Aleksandr V. Semenov

Murmansk Initiative

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-24237-8_342

Murmansk Initiative – a speech by the Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev in Murmansk in 1987 at the ceremony of awarding the Order of Lenin and the Gold Star of the Hero to the city of Murmansk is now considered as the first step to a modern cooperation in the Arctic, leading to the so-called Rovaniemi Process and to the creation in 1991 of the Environmental Protection Strategy of the Arctic. The six proposals made by the President included a call for the establishment of a nuclear-free zone in Northern Europe, the reduction of military activity, taking confidence-building measures in the northern seas, civilian cooperation for the development of natural resources, coordination of scientific research, cooperation in the field of environmental protection, and the opening of the Northern Sea Route for foreign vessels. It was the first sign of change in the closed position of the Soviet North, which thus laid the foundation for real transformations in the Arctic.

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© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016