Hydrographical Expedition of the Arctic Ocean (1898–1915)
Hydrographical Expedition of the Arctic Ocean (1898–1915) – the purpose of the expedition was to secure the future of the Arctic navigation. In 1898 it was formed on the basis of a special hydrographical expedition under the command of Russian lieutenant colonel of the Corps of Fleet Navigators A.I. Vilkitsky. The expedition conducted research in the Barents, Kara, and White seas under the control of A.I. Vilkitsky (1898–1901), A.I. Varnek (1902), and F.K. Drizhenko (1903–1904). In the period from 1898 to 1910, the expedition had a lot of things done: surveys of the Gulf of Ob and the Yenisei Gulf based on the astronomical positions; studies of the fairway in the Pecherskaya Guba and surveys of its southeastern shore; measurements in the Kara Strait and the Yugorsky Strait and surveys of the Yugorsky Strait shores; marine survey of the western and the eastern shores of Vaygach Island and its northern shore as well as the measurements and the marine surveys of the northern part of the Baydaratskaya Guba; marine surveys of the western and the northern coast of the Yamal Peninsula and the northern shore of Bely Island; etc.
Among the members of the expedition starting from 1910 were the commander I.S. Sergeev (starting from 1913 – B.A. Vilkitsky); assistant commanders G.L. Brusilov, K.K. Neupokoev, and N.V. Sakharov; the commanders of the icebreaker “Taymyr” B.V. Davydov and B.A. Vilkitsky (from 1913); the commanders of the icebreaker “Vaygach” A.V. Kolchak (1910), K.V. Loman (1911–1912), and P.A. Novopashennyi; and hydrographers N.I. Evgenov, A.M. Lavrov, and others. Moving across the northern water areas, the expedition described the northern coast of East Asia and a number of islands and collected much information about the currents, ice, atmospheric, and magnetic phenomena. The expedition members discovered Severnaya Zemlya (1913), the last significant geographic discovery of the twentieth century in the world.