Fedorov, Yevgeny Konstantinovich (1910–1981)
Fedorov, Yevgeny Konstantinovich (1910– 1981) – Soviet geophysicist, Academician of the USSR Academy of Sciences (1960), statesman, and Hero of the Soviet Union (1938). In 1932 he graduated from the Physics Department of the Leningrad State University. In 1933 together with a dog driver, Fedorov made a long voyage through the iced straits of the Franz Josef Land from the Tikhaya Bay to the Prince Rudolf Island. In 1934, he was invited to the Taymyr Peninsula to work on a polar station on the Cape Chelyuskin. Here he made several on-foot journeys across Taymyr from Starokadomskiy Island in the Vilkitskiy Strait by the Laptev Sea to the northeast and to the Taymyr River in the southwest and carried out magnetic and hydrological observations, topographical survey, and the setting of coordinates in the “blank” areas of Taymyr.
In 1937–1938 Fedorov participated in the expedition to the North Pole as a researcher. For his hardwork during the 274-day drift, he was awarded the title of the Hero of the Soviet Union. In 1939 F. was appointed Director of the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, but in the same year, he was transferred to Moscow and appointed Chief of the Hydrometeorological Service of the Council of People’s Commissars of the USSR (1932–1947). During the Great Patriotic War (1941–1945), Fedorov contributed a lot to organizing the hydrometeorological support of military operations. He was promoted to Lieutenant General. In 1947 F. was fired on a false denunciation and reduced to the ranks.
Fedorov engaged in restoration of the Elbrus complex alpine expedition. In 1952 he was appointed head of the complex geophysical expedition, which included the Elbrus Expedition. In 1956 he was appointed Deputy Director of the Institute of Applied Geophysics and in 1959 was promoted to its director. In 1969 he was awarded the second State Prize for the development of the method of the influence on hail processes by rocket application of special chemicals inside the hail clouds (he received the first State Prize in 1946). In 1958–1959 a group of experts led by Fedorov contributed to the signing of the 1963 Treaty banning nuclear tests in the atmosphere, outer space, and underwater. In 1960 he became an Academician of the USSR Academy of Sciences, and in 1962 he was appointed Chief of the Main Directorate of the Hydrometeorological Service of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (MDHCM).
Fedorov was fully engaged in the creation of the World Weather Watch; he was also the initiator of the expansion of sea and ocean research of the MDHCM. In 1974 he resigned from his post in MDHCM and devoted himself to studies in the field of human interaction with nature and the environment. In 1979 Fedorov led the Soviet delegation at the First World Climate Conference. Upon his initiative the “Appeal to the Nations” was adopted, which was the document warning the peoples of the world of the possible catastrophic consequences of the Earth climate changing due to the military and industrial activities.