Skip to main content

Crime Mapping and Analysis

  • 71 Accesses

Synonyms

Environmental criminology; First law of geography; Geographical analysis; Rational choice; Route activity; Social disorganization; Spatial analysis of crime; Spatial aspects of crime; Statistical techniques

Definition

The term “crime mapping” is inaccurate as it is overly simplistic. Crime mapping is often associated with the simple display and querying of crime data using a Geographic Information System (GIS). Instead, it is a general term that encompasses the technical aspects of visualization and statistical techniques, as well as practical aspects of geographic principles and criminological theories.

From a technical standpoint, the term is a combination of visualization and statistical techniques manifested as software. This combination of techniques is shared between mapping, spatial analysis and spatial data analysis. Mapping is simply a visualization tool that is used to display raw geographic data and output from analysis, which is done through a GIS. Spatial analysis...

Keywords

  • Geographic Information System
  • Spatial Autocorrelation
  • Social Disorganization
  • Spatial Regression
  • Spatial Data Analysis

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  • Anselin L (1995) Local indicators of spatial association – LISA. Geogr Anal 27:93–115

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Anselin L (2002) Under the hood: issues in the specification and interpretation of spatial regression models. http://sal.uiuc.edu/users/anselin/papers.html

    Google Scholar 

  • Braga AA, Weisburd DL, et al (1999) Problemoriented policing in violent crime places: a randomized controlled experiment. Criminology 7:541–580

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Brantingham P, Brantingham P (1981) Environmental criminology. Waverland Press, Prospect Heights

    Google Scholar 

  • Brantingham P, Brantingham P (1995) Location quotients and crime hotspots in the city. In: Block C, Dabdoub M, Fregly S (eds) Crime analysis through computer mapping. Police Executive Research Forum, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  • Beccaria C (1764) Richard Davies, translator: on crimes and punishments, and other writings. Cambridge University Press

    Google Scholar 

  • Bursik RJ, Grasmick HG (1993) Neighborhoods and crime: the dimensions of effective community control. Lexington Books, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Canter D (2003) Mapping murder: the secrets of geographic profiling. Virgin Publishing, London

    Google Scholar 

  • Chainey S, Ratcliffe J (2005) GIS and crime mapping. Wiley, Hoboken

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Chakravorty S (1995) Identifying crime clusters: the spatial principles. Middle States Geogr 28:53–58

    Google Scholar 

  • Cohen L, Felson M (1979) Social change and crime rate trends. Am Soc Rev 44(4):588–608

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cornish D, Clarke RV (1986) The reasoning criminal. Springer

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Dobson JE (1983) Automated geography. Prof Geogr 35(2):135–143

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Eck J, Chainey S, Cameron J, Leitner M, Wilson RE (2005) Mapping crime: understanding hot spots. National Institute of Justice, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  • Eck J, Wartell J (1997) Reducing crime and drug dealing by improving place management: a randomized experiment. National Institute of Justice

    Google Scholar 

  • Felson M (1994) Crime and everyday life. Pine Forge

    Google Scholar 

  • Getis A, Ord JK (1996) Local spatial statistics: an overview. In: Longley P, Batty M (eds) Spatial analysis: modelling in a GIS environment. Geoinformation International, Cambridge, pp 261–277

    Google Scholar 

  • Harries KD (1974) The geography of crime and justice. McGraw-Hill, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Harries KD (1980) Crime and the environment. Charles C Thomas Press, Spingfield

    Google Scholar 

  • Isserman AM (1977) The location quotient approach for estimating regional economic impacts. J Am Inst Plan 43:33–41

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Karuppannan J (2005) Mapping and corrections: management of offenders with geographic information systems. Corrections Compendium. http://www.iaca.net/Articles/drjaishankarmaparticle.pdf

    Google Scholar 

  • La Vigne NG, Groff ER (2001) The evolution of crime mapping in the United States: from the descriptive to the analytic. In: Hirschfield A, Bowers K (eds) Mapping and analyzing crime data. University of Liverpool Press, Liverpool, pp 203–221

    Google Scholar 

  • LeBeau JL (1987) Patterns of stranger and serial rape offending: factors distinguishing apprehended and at large offenders. J Crim Law Criminol 78(2):309–326

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • LeBeau JL (1992) Four case studies illustrating the spatialtemporal analysis of serial rapists. Police Stud 15:124–145

    Google Scholar 

  • Levine N (2005) CrimeStat III version 3.0, a spatial statistics program for the analysis of crime incident locations

    Google Scholar 

  • Park RE, Burgess EW, McKenzie RD (1925) The city: suggestions for investigation of human behavior in the urban environment. University of Chicago Press, Chicago

    Google Scholar 

  • Paulsen DJ, Robinson MB (2004) Spatial aspects of crime: theory and practice. Allyn and Bacon, Boston

    Google Scholar 

  • Ratcliffe JH, McCullagh MJ (1998) The perception of crime hotspots: a spatial study in Nottingham, UK. In: Crime mapping case studies: successes in the field. National Institute of Justice, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  • Ratcliffe JH (2004) Location quotients and force-field analysis. In: 7th annual international crime mapping research conference, Boston

    Google Scholar 

  • Reiss AJ, Tonry M (eds) (1986) Communities and crime, vol 8. University of Chicago Press, Chicago

    Google Scholar 

  • Rengert GF, Simon H (1981) Crime spillover. Sage Publications, Beverley Hills

    Google Scholar 

  • Rengert GF (1989) Behavioral geography and criminal behavior. In: Evans DJ, Herbert DT (eds) The geography of crime. Routledge, London

    Google Scholar 

  • Rossmo DK (2000) Geographic profiling. CRC Press, Boca Raton

    Google Scholar 

  • Sampson RJ, Raudenbush SR, Earls F (1997) Neighborhoods and violent crime: a multilevel study of collective efficacy. Science 227:918–924

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Shaw CR, McKay HD (1942) Juvenile delinquency and urban areas. University of Chicago Press, Chicago

    Google Scholar 

  • Stokes DE (1997) Pasteur’s quadrant: basic science and technological innovation. Brookings Institution Press, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  • Tobler WR (1970) A computer movie simulating urban growth in the Detroit region. Econ Geogr 46:234–240

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Weisburd D, Eck JE (eds) (1995) Crime and place: crime prevention studies, vol 4. Police Executive Research Forum/Willow Tree Press, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  • Weisburd D, McEwen T (eds) (1997) Introduction: crime mapping and crime prevention. In: Crime mapping and crime prevention. Criminal Justice Press, Monsey, pp 1–23

    Google Scholar 

Recommended Reading

  • Clarke RV (1992) Situational crime prevention: successful case studies. Harrow and Heston, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Cresswell T (2004) Place: a short introduction. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Malden

    Google Scholar 

  • Haining R (2003) Spatial data analysis: theory and practice. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge/New York

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ray JC (1977) Crime prevention through environmental design. Sage Publications, Beverly Hills

    Google Scholar 

  • Ronald CV (1992) Situational crime prevention. Harrow and Heston, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Weisburd D, Green L (1995) Policing drug hot spots: the Jersey city drug market analysis experiment. Justice Q 12(4):711–736

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Keith Harries, Dan Helms, Chris Maxwell and Susan Wernicke-Smith for providing comments on this entry in a very short time. They provided valuable comments that were used toward crafting this entry.

The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors, and do not represent the official positions or policies of the National Institute of Justice or the US Department of Justice.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2016 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

About this entry

Cite this entry

Wilson, R.E., Filbert, K.M. (2016). Crime Mapping and Analysis. In: Shekhar, S., Xiong, H., Zhou, X. (eds) Encyclopedia of GIS. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-23519-6_226-2

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-23519-6_226-2

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-319-23519-6

  • eBook Packages: Springer Reference Computer SciencesReference Module Computer Science and Engineering