Living Reference Work Entry

Handbook of Supernovae

pp 1-37

Date: Latest Version

Neutrinos and Their Impact on Core-Collapse Supernova Nucleosynthesis

  • Gabriel Martínez-PinedoAffiliated withInstitute for Nuclear Physics (Theory Center), Technische Universität DarmstadtGSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research Email author 
  • , Tobias FischerAffiliated withInstitute for Theoretical Physics, University of Wrocław
  • , Karlheinz LangankeAffiliated withInstitute for Nuclear Physics (Theory Center), Technische Universität DarmstadtGSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research
  • , Andreas LohsAffiliated withDepartment of Physics, University of Basel
  • , Andre SieverdingAffiliated withInstitute for Nuclear Physics (Theory Center), Technische Universität Darmstadt
  • , Meng-Ru WuAffiliated withInstitute for Nuclear Physics (Theory Center), Technische Universität DarmstadtNiels Bohr International Academy, Niels Bohr Institute

Abstract

Core-collapse supernovae liberate an energy equivalent to the binding energy of the newly formed neutron star by emitting ∼ 1058 neutrinos of all flavors with typical energies of ∼ 10 MeV. These neutrinos are responsible for a matter outflow from the proto-neutron star known as the neutrino-driven wind. The nucleosynthesis in the wind is very sensitive to the proton-to-nucleon ratio that is determined by spectral differences between ν e and \(\bar{\nu }_{e}\). Current simulations taking into account recent progress in the description of high-density neutrino- matter interactions predict very similar spectra for all neutrino flavors. Hence, the ejecta are mainly proton-rich during the whole deleptonization phase and allow for the operation of the ν p-process. As neutrinos travel through the stellar mantle, they can induce spallation reactions with abundant nuclei. This leads to the ν-process that synthesizes11B,19F,138La, and180Ta and enhances the yields of several long-lived radioactive nuclei. During their propagation, neutrinos can suffer flavor oscillations that can also potentially affect the nucleosynthesis in the ejecta.