The mushroom species Gyromitra (formerly Helvella) esculenta grows throughout the northern hemisphere including North America, Europe, and Asia. It is commonly found in coniferous and hardwood forests. The species fruits in early spring (later at higher elevations), often where snow has recently melted. Gyromitra. is a member of the fungus class Ascomycetes, meaning that it has no gills, tubes, or spines but develops its spores in saclike structures called asci. The mushrooms are moderately sized measuring 3–10 cm across, are brown to reddish brown, and have wrinkled caps, with a brainlike or saddle shape (Fig. 1). The stalk is white to brown in color, thick, and hollow, usually with a single chamber.
- False morel
- Gyromitra esculenta
- Gamma-aminobutyric acid
- Pyridoxal phosphate
- Vitamin B6
- Glutamic acid decarboxylase
- Rapid acetylators
- Oxidative stress
- Diamine oxidase
- Dihydrofolate reductase
- Folinic acid
- Methylene blue
- Thioctic acid
- α-lipoic acid
- Vitamin K
- Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency
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Grading System for Levels of Evidence Supporting Recommendations in Critical Care Toxicology, 2nd Edition
Grading System for Levels of Evidence Supporting Recommendations in Critical Care Toxicology, 2nd Edition
Evidence obtained from at least one properly randomized controlled trial.
Evidence obtained from well-designed controlled trials without randomization.
Evidence obtained from well-designed cohort or case-control analytic studies, preferably from more than one center or research group.
Evidence obtained from multiple time series with or without the intervention. Dramatic results in uncontrolled experiments (such as the results of the introduction of penicillin treatment in the 1940s) could also be regarded as this type of evidence.
Opinions of respected authorities, based on clinical experience, descriptive studies and case reports, or reports of expert committees.
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Brooks, D.E., Graeme, K.A. (2016). Gyromitra Mushrooms. In: Brent, J., Burkhart, K., Dargan, P., Hatten, B., Megarbane, B., Palmer, R. (eds) Critical Care Toxicology. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-20790-2_49-1
Publisher Name: Springer, Cham
Online ISBN: 978-3-319-20790-2
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