Oral Manifestations of Diabetes

  • David DeanEmail author
  • Beatrice Gandara
Reference work entry


The classic pathophysiologic features of diabetes mellitus (DM), including immune dysregulation, vasculopathy, and neuropathy, predispose diabetic individuals to numerous oral complications. Individuals with diabetes are at increased risk for periodontal disease, salivary gland dysfunction, dental caries, mucosal abnormalities, and oral burning, all of which can negatively impact patient quality of life. The bidirectional relationship between diabetes and periodontal disease is of particular importance due to the negative effect of periodontitis on glycemic control and the potential benefit of periodontal therapy on glycemic control. Emerging evidence has also identified decreased healthcare costs in diabetic individuals receiving regular periodontal therapy. Unfortunately, despite the numerous oral manifestations of diabetes and their potential impact on systemic health, many diabetic individuals are not fully aware of the relationship between their diabetes and oral health. Close collaboration between the medical and dental team can positively benefit the diabetic population through early diagnosis and management of the oral complications of diabetes.


Diabetes Periodontitis Hyperglycemia Diabetes complications Candidiasis Dental caries Stomatitis Salivary dysfunction 


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© Springer International Publishing Switzerland (outside the USA) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Oral MedicineUniversity of Washington School of DentistrySeattleUSA

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