Advertisement

Toxicant-Induced Hepatic Injury

  • Kim Dalhoff
Reference work entry

Abstract

The sudden failure of a previously healthy and functioning liver is a dramatic and devastating event. Acute liver failure is the common final pathway of a multitude of conditions and insults, all of which result in massive hepatic necrosis or loss of normal hepatic function. The ensuing multiorgan system failure frequently has a fatal outcome, with mortality rates in most series ranging from approximately 55% to 95% [1]. Acute liver failure (ALF, previously often referred to as fulminant hepatic failure (FHF)) knows no age boundaries, with many cases occurring in those younger than 30 years. Short of excellent intensive care unit (ICU) support and liver transplantation in selected cases, few viable treatment options are available. Over the past few decades, however, survival has been improved by anticipation, recognition, and early treatment of associated complications, as well as the application of prognostic criteria for early identification of patients requiring liver transplantation (along with improvement in the techniques and science of transplantation itself). The etiology of ALF varies from country to country and the incidence change over time. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) has now replaced viral hepatitis as the leading cause of ALF [2]. In a study from London including 310 patients with ALF in the period 1994–2004, 42% of the cases were caused by paracetamol [3], whereas this was only the cause in 2% of 267 patients in Spain from 1992 to 2000 [4]. However, less than 10% of all liver transplants are performed in patients with ALF [5, 6].

References

  1. 1.
    O’Grady JG, Alexander GJM, Hayllar KM, et al. Early indicators of prognosis in fulminant hepatic failure. Gastroenterology. 1989;97:439–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ichai P, Samuel D. Epidemiology of liver failure. Clinics Res Hepatol Gastroenterol. 2011;35:610–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bernal W, Cross TJ, Auzinger G, et al. Outcome after wait-listing for emergency liver transplantation in acute liver failure: a single centre experience. J Hepatol. 2009;50:306–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Escorsell A, Mas A, de la Mata M. Acute liver failure in Spain: analysis of 267 cases. Liver Transpl. 2007;13:1389–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Simpson KJ, Bates CM, Henderson NC, et al. The utilization of liver transplantation in the management of acute liver failure: comparison between acetaminophen and non-acetaminophen etiologies. Liver Transpl. 2009;15:600–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Germani G, Theocharidou E, Adam R, et al. Liver transplantation for acute liver failure in Europe: outcomes over 20 years from the ELTR database. J Hepatol. 2012;57:288–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bernuau J, Rueff B, Benhamou JP. Fulminant and subfulminant liver failure: definitions and causes. Semin Liver Dis. 1986;6:97–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    O’Grady JG, Schalm SW, Williams R, et al. Acute liver failure: redefining the syndromes. Lancet. 1993;342:273–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Takahashi Y, Shimizu M. Aetiology and prognosis of fulminant viral hepatitis in Japan: a multicenter study. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1991;6:159–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bernuau J, Goudeau A, Poynard T, et al. Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors in fulminant hepatitis B. Hepatology. 1986;6:648–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Acharya SK, Dasarathy S, Tandon BN. Should we redefine acute liver failure? [letter]. Lancet. 1993;342:1421–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tandon BN, Bernauau J, O'Grady J, et al. Recommendations of the International Association for the Study of the Liver Subcommittee on nomenclature of acute and subacute liver failure. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1999;14:403–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Keppler D, Popper H, Bianchi L, et al., editors. Mechanisms of hepatocellular injury and death. Lancaster, UK: MTP Press; 1984.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Schanne FAX, Kane AB, Young EE, et al. Calcium dependence of toxic cell death: a final common pathway. Science. 1979;206:700.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Popper H, Keppler D. Networks of interacting mechanisms of hepatocellular degeneration and death. Prog Liver Dis. 1986;8:209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Miwa Y, Harrison PM, Farzaneh F, et al. Plasma levels and hepatic mRNA expression of transforming growth factor-beta1 in patients with fulminant hepatic failure. J Hepatol. 1997;27:780–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Eguchi S, Okudaira S, Azuma T, et al. Changes in liver regenerative factors in a case of living-related liver transplantation. Clin Transplant. 1999;13:536–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Andus T, Bauer J, Gerok W. Effects of cytokines on the liver. Hepatology. 1991;13:364–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yumoto E, Higashi T, Nouso K, et al. Serum gamma-interferon–inducing factor (IL-18) and IL-10 levels in patients with acute hepatitis and fulminant hepatic failure. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2002;17:285–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    White HM. Evaluation and management of liver failure. In: Rippe JM, editor. Intensive care medicine. 3rd ed. Boston: Little, Brown; 1996.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ostapowicz G, Fontana RJ, Schiodt FV, et al. Results of a prospective study of acute liver failure at 17 tertiary care centers in the United States. Ann Intern Med. 2002;137:947–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Reuben A, Koch DG, Lee WM. Drug-induced acute liver failure: results of a U.S. multicenter, prospective study. Hepatology. 2010;52:2065–76.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Prescott LF. Paracetamol overdosage: pharmacological considerations and clinical management. Drugs. 1983;25:290.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    O'Grady JG, Portmann B, Williams R. Fulminant hepatic failure. In: Schiff L, Schiff R, editors. Diseases of the liver. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott; 1993.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Schiodt FV, Atillasoy E, Shakil AO, et al. Etiology and outcome for 295 patients with acute liver failure in the United States. Liver Transpl Surg. 1999;5:29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Oketani M, Ido A, Tsubouchi H. Changing etiologies and outcomes of acute liver failure: a perspective from Japan. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011;26:65–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gulmez SE, Larrey D, Pageaux G-P, et al. Liver transplant associated with paracetamol overdose: results from the seven-country SALT study. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2015;80:599–606.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lewis RK, Paloucek FP. Assessment and treatment of acetaminophen overdose. Clin Pharm. 1991;10:765.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Craig DGN, Bates CM, Davidson JS, et al. Staggered overdose pattern and delay to hospital presentation are associated with adverse outcomes following paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2012;73:285–94.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Whitcomb DC, Block GD. Association of acetaminophen toxicity with fasting and ethanol use. JAMA. 1994;272:1845–18504.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Schmidt LE, Dalhoff K. Serum phosphate is an early predictor of outcome in severe acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. Hepatology. 2002;36:659–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mitchell JR, Jollow JD, Potter WZ, et al. Acetaminophen-induced hepatic necrosis: I. Role of drug metabolism. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1973;187:185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mitchell JR, Jollow JD, Potter WZ, et al. Acetaminophen-induced hepatic necrosis: IV. Protective role of glutathione. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1973;187:211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Slattery JT, Nelson SD, Thummel KE. The complex interaction between ethanol and acetaminophen. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1996;60:241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Murphy R, Swartz R, Watkins PB. Severe acetaminophen toxicity in a patient receiving isoniazid. Ann Intern Med. 1980;113:399.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bray GP, Harrison PM, O’Grady JG, et al. Long term anticonvulsant therapy worsens outcome in paracetamol induced hepatic failure. Hum Exp Toxicol. 1992;11:265.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lauterburg BH, Velez ME. Glutathione deficiency in alcoholics: risk factor for paracetamol. Hepatology. 1988;29:1153.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Zimmerman HJ, Maddrey WC. Acetaminophen (paracetamol) hepatotoxicity with regular intake of alcohol: analysis of instances of therapeutic misadventure. Hepatology. 1995;22:767.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Pessayre D, Bentata M, Degott C, et al. Isoniazid-rifampin fulminant hepatitis. A possible consequence of the enhancement of isoniazid hepatotoxicity by enzyme induction. Gastroenterology. 1977;72:284.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Riley 3rd TR, Smith JP. Ibuprofen-induced hepatotoxicity in patients with chronic hepatitis C: a case series. Am J Gastroenterol. 1998;93:1563–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Garcia-Rodriguez LA, Williams R, Derby LE, et al. Acute liver injury associated with NSAIDs and the role of risk factors. Arch Intern Med. 1994;154:311–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Shaheen N, Grimm IS. Fulminant hepatic failure associated with clarithromycin. Am J Gastroenterol. 1996;91:394–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Björnsson ES, Bergman OM, Björnsson HK, et al. Incidence, presentation, and outcomes in patients with drug-induced liver injury in the general population of Iceland. Gastroenterology. 2013;144:1419–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Zimmerman HJ. Hepatotoxicity. The adverse effects of drugs and other chemicals on the liver. New York: Appleton; 1978.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Pratt DS, Kaplan MM. Evaluation of abnormal liver enzyme results in asymptomatic patients. N Engl J Med. 2000;342:1266–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Escher, et al. Hepatitis associated with Kava, a herbal remedy for anxiety. BMJ. 2001;322:1097.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kraft, et al. Fulminant liver failure after administration of the herbal antidepressant Kava-Kava. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2001;126(36):970–2.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Scully RE, Mark EJ, McNeely WF, et al. Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. N Engl J Med. 2001;344:591–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Brauer RB, Heidecke CD, Nathrath W, et al. Liver transplantation for the treatment of fulminant hepatic failure induced by the ingestion of ecstasy. Transpl Int. 1997;10:229–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Bryson PD. Mushrooms. In: Bryson PD, editor. Comprehensive Review in Toxicology for Emergency Clinicians. 3rd ed. DC, Taylor & Francis: Washington; 1996. p. 685–93.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Klein AS, Hart J, Brems JJ, et al. Amanita poisoning: Treatment and the role of liver transplantation. Am J Med. 1989;86:187–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Lampe KF, McCann MA. AMA Handbook of Poisonous and Injurious Plants. Chicago: American Medical Association; 1985.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Pinson CW, Daya MR, Benner KG, et al. Liver transplantation for severe Amanita phalloides mushroom poisoning. Am J Surg. 1990;159:493–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kopple C. Clinical symptomatology and management of mushroom poisoning. Toxicon. 1993;31:1513–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    O’Brien B, Khuu L. A fatal Sunday brunch: Amanita mushroom poisoning in a Gulf Coast family. Am J Gastroenterol. 1996;91:581–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Faulstich H. New aspects of Amanita poisoning. Klin Wochenschr. 1979;57:1143–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Wieland T, Faulstich H. Fifty years of Amanita review. Experientia. 1991;47:1186–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Fagan EA, Williams R. Fulminant viral hepatitis. Br Med Bull. 1990;46:462–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Hoofnagle JH, Nelson KE, Purcell RH. Hepatitis E. N Engl J Med. 2012;367:1237–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Wasley a, Fiore A, Bell BP: Hepatitis A in the era of vaccination. Epidemiol Rev 2006;28: 101–111.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Khuroo MS, Kamili S. Aetiology and prognostic factors in acute liver failure in India. J Viral Hepat. 2003;10:224–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Lucke B. The fulminant form of epidemic hepatitis. Am J Pathol. 1946;22:867.PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Mathieson LR, Linglof T, Moller AM, et al. Fulminant hepatitis A. J Infect Dis. 1979;11:303.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Vallbracht A, Maier K, Stierhof Y, et al. Liver-derived cytotoxic T cells in hepatitis A virus infection. J Infect Dis. 1989;160:209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Wright TL, Mamish D, Combs C, et al. Hepatitis B and apparent non-A, non-B hepatitis. Lancet. 1992;339:952.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Saracco G, Macagno S, Rosina F, et al. Serologic markers with fulminant hepatitis in persons positive for hepatitis B surface antigen: A worldwide epidemiologic and clinical survey. Ann Intern Med. 1988;108:380–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Christie AB, Allam AA, Aref MK, et al. Pregnancy hepatitis in Libya. Lancet. 1976;2:827–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Chu CM, Yeh CT, Liaw YF. Fulminant hepatic failure in acute hepatitis C: Increased risk in chronic carriers of hepatitis B virus. Gut. 1999;45:613.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Smedile A, Verme G, Cargnel A, et al. Influence of delta infection on severity of hepatitis B. Lancet. 1982;2:945–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Dematte JE, O’Mara K, Buescher J, et al. Near-fatal heat stroke during the 1995 heat wave in Chicago. Ann Intern Med. 1995;129:173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Sims HF, Brackett JC, Powell CK. The molecular basis of pediatric long chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency associated with maternal acute fatty liver of pregnancy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:841–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Pereira LMMB, Langley PG, Hayllar KM, et al. Coagulation factor V and VIII/V ratio as predictors of outcome in paracetamol induced fulminant hepatic failure: Relation to other prognostic indicators. Gut. 1992;33:98–102.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Hillenbrand P, Prabhoo SP, Jedrychowski A, et al. Significance of intravascular coagulation and fibrinolysis in acute hepatic failure. Gut. 1974;15:83.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    O’Grady JG, Langley PG, Isola LM. Coagulopathy of fulminant hepatic failure. Semin Liver Dis. 1986;6:159–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Jones EA, Schafer DF, Ferenci P, et al. The neurobiology of hepatic encephalopathy. Hepatology. 1984;4:1235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Mullen KD, Martin JV, Mendelson WB, et al. Could an endogenous benzodiazepine ligand contribute to hepatic encephalopathy? Lancet. 1988;1:457–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Gimson AES, Braude S, Mellon PJ, et al. Earlier charcoal hemoperfusion in fulminant hepatic failure. Lancet. 1982;2:681.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Ware AJ, D’Agostino A, Combes B. Cerebral edema: A major complication of massive hepatic necrosis. Gastroenterology. 1971;61:877.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Berk PD, Popper H: Fulminant hepatic failure. Annotated abstracts of a workshop held at the National Institutes of Health, 1977. Am J Gastroenterol 1978;69:349.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Traber PG, Dal Canto M, Ganger DR, et al. Electron microscopic evaluation of brain edema in rabbits with galactosamine induced fulminant hepatic failure: Ultrastructure and integrity of the blood–brain barrier. Hepatology. 1987;7:1272–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Kato M, Hughes RD, Keays RT, et al. Electron microscopic study of brain capillaries in cerebral edema from fulminant hepatic failure. Hepatology. 1992;15:1060–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Almdal T, Schroeder T, Ranek L. Cerebral blood flow and liver function in patients with encephalopathy due to acute and chronic liver diseases. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1989;24:229–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Lidofsky SD, Bass NM, Prager MC, et al. Intracranial pressure monitoring and liver transplantation for fulminant hepatic failure. Hepatology. 1992;16:1–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Trewby PN, Williams R. Pathophysiology of hypotension in patients with fulminant hepatic failure. Gut. 1977;18:1021.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Weston MJ, Talbot IC, Howorth PJN, et al. Frequency of arrhythmias and other cardiac abnormalities in fulminant hepatic failure. Br Heart J. 1976;38:1179.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    O’Grady JG, Williams R. Management of acute liver failure. Schweiz Med Wochenschr. 1986;116:541.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Leithead JA, Ferguson JW, Bates CM, et al. The systemic inflammatory response is predictive of renal dysfunction in patients with non-paracetamol-induced acute liver failure. Gut. 2009;58:443–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Arroyo V, Gines P, Gerbes AL, et al. Definition and diagnostic criteria of refractory ascites and hepatorenal syndrome in cirrhosis. International Ascites Club Hepatology. 1996;23:164–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Moore K, Taylor G, Ward P, et al. Etiology and management of renal failure in acute liver failure. In: Williams R, Hughes RD, editors. Acute Liver Failure: Improved Understanding and Better Therapy. London: Miter Press; 1991. p. 47–53.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Warren R, Trewby PN, Laws JW, et al. Pulmonary complications in fulminant hepatic failure: Analysis of serial radiographs from 100 consecutive patients. Clin Radiol. 1978;29:346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Trewby PN, Warren R, Contini S, et al. Incidence and pathophysiology of pulmonary edema in fulminant hepatic failure. Gastroenterology. 1978;74:859.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Wendon J, Alexander GJM, Williams R. Cardiovascular monitoring and local blood flow. In: Williams R, Hughes RD, editors. Acute Liver Failure: Improved Understanding and Better Therapy. London: Miter Press; 1991. p. 39–41.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Bihari D, Gimson AW, Lindridge J, et al. Lactic acidosis in fulminant hepatic failure. Some aspects of pathogenesis and prognosis J Hepatol. 1985;1:405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Bihari D, Gimson AES, Waterson M, et al. Tissue hypoxia during fulminant hepatic failure. Crit Care Med. 1985;13:1043–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Harrison PM, Wendon JA, Gimson AES, et al. Improvement by acetylcysteine of hemodynamic and oxygen transport in fulminant hepatic failure. N Eng J Med. 1991;324:1852–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Walsh TS, Hopton P, Philips BJ, et al. The effect of N-acetylcysteine on oxygen transport and uptake in patients with fulminant hepatic failure. Hepatology. 1998;27:1332–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Bailey RJ, Woolf IL, Cullens H, et al. Metabolic inhibition of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in fulminant hepatic failure. Lancet. 1976;1:1162–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Wyke RJ, Canalese JC, Gimson AES, et al. Bacteremia in patients with fulminant hepatic failure. Liver. 1982;2:45–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Rolando N, Harvey F, Brahm J, et al. Prospective study of bacterial infection in acute liver failure: An analysis of fifty patients. Hepatology. 1990;11:49–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Rolando N, Gimson A, Wade J, et al. Prospective controlled trial of selective parenteral and enteral antimicrobial regimen in fulminant hepatic failure. Hepatology. 1993;17:196–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Gazzard BG, Portmann B, Murray-Lyon IM, et al. Causes of death in fulminant hepatic failure and relationship to quantitative histological assessments of parenchymal damage. Q J Med. 1975;44:615.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Caraceni P, van Thiel DH. Acute liver failure. Lancet. 1995;345:163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Shami VM, Macik BG, Hespenheide EE, et al: Recombinant activated factor VII is superior to plasma alone in correcting the coagulopathy of fulminant hepatic failure [abstract]. Hepatology 2001;34:327A.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Rahimi RS, Singal AG, Cuthbert JA, et al. Lactulose vs polyethylene glycol 3350-electrolyte solution for treatment of overt hepatic encephalopathy. The HELP randomized clinical study. J Am Med Ass Intern Med. 2014;174:1727–33.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Bass NM, Mullen KD, Sanyal A, et al. Rifaximin treatment in hepatic encephalopathy. N Engl J Med. 2010;362:1071–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Lee WM. Medical progress: Acute liver failure. N Engl J Med. 1993;329:1862–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Blei AT, Olafsson S, Webster S, et al. Complications of intracranial pressure monitoring in fulminant hepatic failure. Lancet. 1993;341:157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Ascher NL, Lake JR, Emond JC, et al. Liver transplantation for fulminant hepatic failure. Arch Surg. 1993;128:677.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Clinical practice guidelines for the sustained use of sedatives and analgesics in the critically ill adult. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2002;59:150–178.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Munzo SJ. Difficult management problems in fulminant hepatic failure. Semin Liver Dis. 1993;13:395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Canales J, Gimson AE, Davis C, et al. Controlled trial of dexamethasone and mannitol for cerebral oedema of fulminant hepatic failure. Gut. 1982;23:625.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Mas A, Rodes J. Fulminant hepatic failure. Lancet. 1997;349:1081.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Schmidt LE, Dalhoff K, Poulsen HE. Acute versus chronic alcohol consumption in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. Hepatology. 2002;35:876–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Plauth M, Cabré E, Riggio O, et al. ESPEN guidelines on enteral nutrition: liver disease. Clin Nutr. 2006;25:285–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Clemmesen JO, Ott P, Dalhoff K, et al. Recommendations for treatment of paracetamol poisoning. Ugeskr Læger. 1996;158:6892–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Riegler JL, Lake JR. Fulminant hepatic failure review. Med North Am. 1993;77:1057–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Hanau C, Munoz SJ, Rubin R, et al. Histopathological heterogeneity in fulminant hepatic failure. Hepatology. 1995;21:345.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    McPhail MJW, Wendon JA, Bernal W. Meta-analysis of performance of Kings’ College Hospital Criteria in prediction of outcome in non-paracetamol-induced acute liver failure. J Hepatol. 2010;53:492–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Mitchell I, Bihari D, Chang R, et al. Earlier identification of patients at risk from acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure. Crit Care Med. 1998;26:279–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Pauwels A, Mostefa-Kara N, Floret C, et al. Emergency liver transplantation for acute liver failure. Evaluation of London and Clichy criteria J Hepatol. 1993;17:124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Schiodt FV, Bondesen S, Petersen I, et al. Admission levels of serum Gc-globulin: Predictive value in fulminant hepatic failure. Hepatology. 1996;23:713–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Bernal W, Donaldson N, Wyncoll D, et al. Blood lactate as an early predictor of outcome in paracetamol-induced acute liver failure: a cohort study. Lancet. 2002;359:558–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Chenard-Neu MP, Boudjema K, Bernuau J, et al. Auxiliary liver transplantation: Regeneration of the native liver and outcome in 30 patients with fulminant hepatic failure. Hepatology. 1996;23:1119–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Nagamori S, Hasumura S, Matsuura T, et al. Developments in bioartificial liver research: Concepts, performance, and applications. J Gastroenterol. 2000;35:493–503.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Tritto G, Davies NA, Jalan R. Liver Replacement Therapy. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2012;33:70–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Clinical PharmacologyBispebjerg and Frederiksberg University HospitalCopenhagenDenmark

Personalised recommendations