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Malignant Hyperthermia

  • Henry Rosenberg
  • Dorothea Hall
  • Harvey Rosenbaum
Reference work entry

Abstract

Malignant hyperthermia (MH) syndrome is an unusual disorder. Much like an individual who has an allergy, the MH-susceptible patient is often unaware of his or her problem unless there is a family history of anesthesia-related problems that suggest MH or until exposed to the “triggering” agent. MH syndrome may not develop on all exposures. The resemblance to an allergy breaks down, however, on further analysis. MH is an inherited disorder [1]. Patients develop a hypermetabolic condition on exposure to drugs that are generally used to produce general anesthesia such as isoflurane, halothane, desflurane, and sevoflurane or skeletal muscle paralysis, namely, succinylcholine [2]. The pathophysiologic change in MH relates to an uncontrolled increase of intracellular calcium in skeletal muscle that leads to hypermetabolism, depletion of energy sources, acidosis, and membrane breakdown [1–3]. Untreated, MH syndrome is fatal in most cases. With prompt discontinuation of trigger agents and administration of the drug dantrolene [4], mortality may be close to zero [5]. This chapter discusses clinical presentation, pathophysiology, molecular genetics, diagnosis, treatment, and sources of information for this unusual cause of anesthetic morbidity and mortality.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Henry Rosenberg
    • 1
  • Dorothea Hall
    • 2
  • Harvey Rosenbaum
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Medical Education and Clinical ResearchSaint Barnabas Medical CenterLivingstonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative MedicineUCLA, David Geffen School of MedicineLos AngelesUSA

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