The Diagnostic Process in Medical Toxicology

  • Anthony F. Pizon
  • Joseph H. Yanta
  • Greg S. Swartzentruber
Reference work entry


A medical toxicologist must pay great attention to detail. Unlike other specialties, the toxicologist rarely has a gold-standard diagnostic test to confirm a poisoning or withdrawal condition. Instead, the medical toxicology evaluation requires a thorough history and physical examination and strategically ordered diagnostic testing. Then once all available information is gathered, the medical toxicologist must astutely interpret the findings within the appropriate clinical context. Therefore, the toxicologist can be nothing short of an astute diagnostician.


Diagnosis Toxidromes Toxidrome Opioid toxidrome Benzodiazepines Antimuscarinic toxidrome Anticholinergic syndrome Cholinergic toxidrome Sympathomimetic toxidrome Serotonin syndrome Neuroleptic malignant syndrome Arterial blood gases Osmolal gap 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anthony F. Pizon
    • 1
  • Joseph H. Yanta
    • 1
  • Greg S. Swartzentruber
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Division of Medical ToxicologyDepartment of Emergency MedicinePittsburghUSA

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