Advertisement

Assessment for Twenty-First-Century Learning: The Challenges Ahead

  • Patricia BroadfootEmail author
Living reference work entry

Abstract

This chapter offers firstly, a resume of some of the pressing needs for change in current educational assessment thinking and practice if learners are effectively to be prepared for their future lives and work in the twenty-first century. It then traces the growing interest in assessment for learning (AfL) as a significant challenge to the assessment status quo. This discussion leads into the argument of the third section which concerns the potential for technology-enhanced assessment to meet the novel needs of today’s learner whilst building on the strengths of AfL. The reasons for the slow realisation of this potential and some of the risks that TEA poses form the fourth section of the chapter which concludes with some observations concerning the likelihood of the transformative potential of technology-enhanced assessment (TEA) being realised in practice.

Keywords

Assessment Technology enhanced assessment Assessment for learning Motivation Futures 

Notes

Acknowledgment

This chapter draws on a research project conducted by Broadfoot, PM, Oldfield, A; Sutherland, RJ, and Timmis, S; University of Bristol. A full account, Assessment in a Digital Age: A research review, is available at bris.ac.uk

References

  1. Allal, L., & Mottier-Lopez, L. (2014). Teachers’ professional judgement in the context of professional assessment practice. In C. Wyatt-Smith, V. Klenowski, & P. Colbert (Eds.), Designing assessment for quality leaning. London, UK: Springer.Google Scholar
  2. Attwood, R., & Radnofsky, L. (2007, September 14). Satisfied – But students want more feedback. Times Higher Education. Available from http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?sectioncode=26&storycode=310440
  3. Beevers, C. (Ed.). (2011). What can e-assessment do for learning and teaching? Part 1 of a draft of current and emerging practice review by the e-Assessment Association expert panel. International Journal of e-Assessment, 1(2).Google Scholar
  4. Bennett, R. E. (2002). Inexorable and inevitable: The continuing story of technology and assessment. Journal of Technology, Learning and Assessment, 1(1) Online journal article retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1667/.
  5. Bienkowski, M., Feng, M., & Means, B. (2012). Enhancing teaching and learning through educational data mining and learning analytics: An issue brief. US Department of Education, Office of Education Technology.Google Scholar
  6. Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (2009). Developing the theory of formative assessment. Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability, 21(1), 5–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Broadfoot, P. (1996). Education assessment and society. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  8. Broadfoot, P. (2007). An introduction to assessment. London Continuum.Google Scholar
  9. Broadfoot, P. M., Timmis, S. E., Payton, S., Oldfield, A., Sutherland, R. J., Broadfoot, P. M., etc. (2013). Rethinking assessment: Six discussion papers research-information. bristol.ac.uk
  10. Care, E., Griffin, P., Zhang, Z., & Hutchinson, D. (2014). The role of assessment in improving learning in a context of high accountability. In C. Wyatt-Smith, V. Klenowski, & P. Colbert (Eds.), Designing assessment for quality leaning. London, UK: Springer.Google Scholar
  11. Claxton, G. (2007). Expanding young people’s capacity to learn. British Journal of Educational Studies, 55(2), 115–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dawson, S. (2010). ‘Seeing’ the learning community: An exploration of the development of a resource for monitoring online student networking. British Journal of Educational Technology, 41(5), 736–752.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Deakin Crick, R., Broadfoot, P., & Claxton, G. (2004). Developing an effective lifelong learning inventory. Assessment in Education, 11(3), 248–272.Google Scholar
  14. Earl, L. M., & Timperley, H. (2014). Challenging conceptions of assessment. In C. Wyatt-Smith, V. Klenowski, & P. Colbert (Eds.), Designing assessment for quality leaning. London, UK: Springer.Google Scholar
  15. Facer, K. (2011). Learning futures: education, technology and social change. Oxford, UK: Routledge.Google Scholar
  16. Facer, K. (2012). Taking the 21st century seriously: Young people, education and socio-technical futures. Oxford Review of Education, 38(1), 97–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ferguson, R. (2012). The state of learning analytics in 2012: A review and future challenges. Technical Report KMI-12-01, Knowledge Media Institute, The Open University. Available from http://kmi.open.ac.uk/publications/techreport/kmi-12-01.
  18. Gee, J. P., & Shaffer, D. W. (2010). Looking where the light is bad: Video games and the future of assessment. Edge: The latest information for the education practitioner, 6(1), 3–19.Google Scholar
  19. Gibbons, M., Limoges, C., Nowotny, H., Schwartzam, S., & Scott, P. (1994). The new production of knowledge. London, UK: Sage.Google Scholar
  20. Goldstein, H. (2014). Using league table rankings in public policy formation: Statistical issues (PDF, 663kB). Annual Review Statistics Applied, 1, 385–399. doi: 10.1146/annurev-statistics-022513-115615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gray, K., Thompson, C., Sheard, J., Clerehan, R., & Hamilton, M. (2010). Students as Web 2.0 authors: Implications for assessment design and conduct. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 26(1), 105–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Harlen, W., & Deakin-Crick, R. (2002) A systematic review of the impact of summative assessment and tests on students’ motivation for learning. The EPPI-Centre, Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London. http://eppi.ioe.ac.uk/
  23. Hattie, J. A. C., & Brown, G. T. L. (2007). Technology for school-based assessment and assessment for learning: Development principles from New Zealand. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 36(2), 189–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hughes, G. (2009). Social software: New opportunities for challenging social inequalities in learning? Learning, Media and Technology, 34(4), 291–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jenkins, H., Clinton, K., Purushotma, R., Robison, A. J., & Weigel, M. (2006). Confronting the challenges of participatory culture: Media education for the 21st century. A MacArthur Foundation report. Available from http://digitallearning.macfound.org/atf/cf/%7B7E45C7E0-A3E0-4B89-AC9C-E807E1B0AE4E%7D/JENKINS_WHITE_PAPER.PDF
  26. Jisc. (2010). Effective assessment in a digital age. A Jisc report. Available from http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/programmes/elearning/digiassass_eada.pdf
  27. Kimball, R. (2007). e-assessment in project e-scape. Design and Technology Education: An International Journal, 12(2), 66–76.Google Scholar
  28. Koh, K. (2014). Authentic assessment, teacher judgement and moderation in a context of high accountability. In C. Wyatt-Smith, V. Klenowski, & P. Colbert (Eds.), Designing assessment for quality leaning. London, UK: Springer.Google Scholar
  29. McAlpine, M. (2012). Collaborative assessment and the assessment of collaboration. International Journal of e-Assessment, 2(2).Google Scholar
  30. Mogey, N. (2011). What is it that is really acting as a barrier to widespread use of summative e-assessment in UK higher education? International Journal of e-Assessment, 1(1).Google Scholar
  31. Oldfield, A., Broadfoot, P., Sutherland, R., & Timmis, S. (2012) Assessment in a digital age: A research review. Graduate School of Education, University of Bristol. Available online at: http:// www.bristol.ac.uk/education/research/sites/tea/publications/index.html
  32. Pellegrino, J. W., & Quellmalz, E. S. (2010). Perspectives on the integration of technology and assessment. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 43(2), 119–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Perrotta, C., & Wright, M.. (2010). New assessment scenarios. A Futurelab report. Available from http://www.futurelab.org.uk/resources/new-assessment-scenarios
  34. Popham, W. J. (2011, February). Formative assessment: A process not a test. Education Week, pp. 21–25.Google Scholar
  35. Popham, W. J. (2014). Looking at assessment through learning-coloured lenses. In C. Wyatt-Smith, V. Klenowski, & P. Colbert (Eds.), Designing assessment for quality leaning. London, UK: Springer.Google Scholar
  36. Schwartz, D. L., & Arena, D. (2009). Choice-based assessments for the digital age. Stanford University. Available from http://dmlcentral.net/sites/dmlcentral/files/resource_files/ChoiceSchwartzArenaAUGUST232009.pdf.
  37. Shephard, K. (2009). e is for exploration: Assessing hard-to-measure learning outcomes. British Journal of Educational Technology, 40(2), 386–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Shute, V. J., Dennen, V., Kim, Y., Donmez, O., & Wang, C. (2010) 21st century assessment to promote 21st century learning: The benefits of blinking. A report for Digital Media and Learning network. Available from http://dmlcentral.net/resources/4031
  39. Siemens, G., & Long, P. (2011). Penetrating the fog: Analytics in learning and education. EDUCAUSE, 46(5) Available from http://www.educause.edu/EDUCAUSE+Review/EDUCAUSEReviewMagazineVolume46/PenetratingtheFogAnalyticsinLe/235017.
  40. Steiner, K., & Smith, K. (2014). Assessment literacy. In C. Wyatt-Smith, V. Klenowski, & P. Colbert (Eds.), Designing assessment for quality leaning. London, UK: Springer.Google Scholar
  41. Tillema, H. (2014). Student involvement in assessment of their learning. In C. Wyatt-Smith, V. Klenowski, & P. Colbert (Eds.), Designing assessment for quality leaning. London, UK: Springer.Google Scholar
  42. Timmis, S., Joubert, M., Manuel, A., & Barnes, S. (2010). Transmission, transformation and ritual: An investigation of students’ and researchers’ digitally mediated communications and collaborative work. Learning Media and Technology Media and Technology, 35(3), 307–322. doi:10.1080/17439884.2010.509354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Timmis, S., Broadfoot, P., Sutherland, R., & Oldfield, A. (2016). Rethinking assessment in a digital age: Opportunities, challenges and risks. British Educational Research Journal, 42(3), 454–476. doi:10.1002/berj.3215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Whitelock, D., & Brasher, A. (2006). Roadmap for e-assessment. A Jisc report. Available from http://www.jiscinfonet.ac.uk/InfoKits/effective-use-of-VLEs/resources/roadmap-for-eassessment
  45. Whitelock, D., & Watt, S. (2008). Reframing e-assessment: Adopting new media and adapting old frameworks. Learning, Media and Technology, 33(3), 151–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of EducationUniversity of BristolBristolUK

Personalised recommendations