Advertisement

Blended Learning Research in Higher Education and K-12 Settings

  • Lisa R. HalversonEmail author
  • Kristian J. Spring
  • Sabrina Huyett
  • Curtis R. Henrie
  • Charles R. Graham
Living reference work entry

Abstract

Blended learning is adopted widely in educational settings. Over the past decade, blended courses have increased in higher education (HE), and currently blended learning is expanding in K-12 as well. As blended learning becomes more prevalent, opportunities for research into blended learning are also increasing. Researchers and practitioners need to know the current issues and lines of inquiry prominent in blended learning to direct them to the cutting-edge research and enable them to identify the most pressing problems. This chapter synthesizes and categorizes current blended learning research, with recommendations for future directions. Issues addressed in HE blended learning and K-12 blended learning are identified, compared, and evaluated by reviewing major research on the topic. Finally, future research steps and important research gaps are described.

Keywords

Blended learning K-12 education Higher education Research trends Information and communication technologies Online learning Hybrid instruction 

References

  1. Allen, I. E., Seaman, J., Lederman, D., & Jaschik, S. (2012). Conflicted: Faculty and online education, 2012. Inside Higher Ed, p. 55. Retrieved from http://www.insidehighered.com/sites/default/server_files/files/IHE-BSRG-Conflict.pdf
  2. Alonso, F., López, G., Manrique, D., & Viñes, J. M. (2005). An instructional model for web-based e-learning education with a blended learning process approach. British Journal of Educational Technology, 36(2), 217–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arney, L. (2015). Go blended! A handbook for blending technology in schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  4. Asarta, C. J., & Schmidt, J. R. (2013). Access patterns of online materials in a blended course. Decision Sciences Journal of Innovative Education, 11(1), 107–123. doi:10.1207/s15327752jpa8502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aspire Public Schools. (2013). Blended learning 101 handbook. Retrieved from http://aspirepublicschools.org/media/filer_public/2013/07/22/aspire-blended-learning-handbook-2013.pdf
  6. Bai, H., & Ertmer, P. A. (2008). Teacher educators’ beliefs and technology uses as predictors of pre-service teachers’ beliefs and technology attitudes. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 16(1), 93–112.Google Scholar
  7. Bailey, J., Duty, L., Ellis, S., Martin, N., Mohammed, S., Owens, D., … Wolfe, J. (2015). Blended learning implementation guide 3.0. version 3.0. Retrieved from http://digitallearningnow.com/site/uploads/2013/09/BLIG-3.0-FINAL.pdf
  8. Barbour, M. K. (2014). A history of international K-12 online and blended instruction. In R. Ferdig & K. Kennedy (Eds.), Handbook of research on K-12 online and blended learning (pp. 25–50). Pittsburgh: Entertainment Technology Center Press, Carnegie Mellon University.Google Scholar
  9. Barbour, M. K., & Kennedy, K. (2014). K–12 online learning: A worldwide perspective. In A. Hirumi (Ed.), Grounded designs for online and hybrid learning: Trends and technologies (pp. 53–74). Washington, DC: International Society for Technology in Education.Google Scholar
  10. Barbour, M. K., & Reeves, T. C. (2009). The reality of virtual schools: A review of the literature. Computers & Education, 52(2), 402–416. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2008.09.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Barbour, M. K., Brown, R., Waters, L. H., Hoey, R., Hunt, J. L., Kennedy, K., … Trimm, T. (2011). Online and blended learning: A survey of policy and practice of K-12 schools around the world. iNACOL. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED537334.pdf
  12. Barbour, M. K., Clark, T., DeBruler, K., & Bruno, J. A. (2014). Evaluation and approval constructs for online and blended courses and providers. Lansing: Michigan Virtual Learning Research Institute at MVU. Retrieved from http://media.mivu.org/institute/pdf/eval_constructs.pdf
  13. Battaglino, T. B., Halderman, M., & Laurans, E. (2012). Creating sound policy for digital learning: The costs of online learning. Retrieved from http://www.edexcellencemedia.net/publications/2012/20120110-the-costs-of-online-learning/20120110-the-costs-of-online-learning.pdf
  14. Bernard, R. M., Abrami, P. C., Borokhovski, E., Wade, C. A., Tamim, R. M., Surkes, M. A., & Bethel, E. C. (2009). A meta-analysis of three types of interaction treatments in distance education. Review of Educational Research, 79(3), 1243–1289. doi:10.3102/0034654309333844.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bernard, R. M., Borokhovski, E., Schmid, R. F., Tamim, R. M., & Abrami, P. C. (2014). A meta-analysis of blended learning and technology use in HE: From the general to the applied. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 26(1), 87–122. doi:10.1007/s12528-013-9077-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Betts, K., Hartman, K., & Oxholm, C. (2009). Re-examining & repositioning higher education: Twenty economic and demographic factors driving online and blended program enrollments. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 13(4), 3–23.Google Scholar
  17. Bonk, C. J., & Graham, C. R. (2006). Handbook of blended learning: Global perspectives, local designs. San Francisco: Pfeiffer Publishing.Google Scholar
  18. Borup, J., Graham, C. R., & Velasquez, A. (2011). The use of asynchronous video communication to improve instructor immediacy and social presence in a blended learning environment. In A. Kitchenham (Ed.), Blended learning across disciplines: Models for implementation (pp. 38–57). Hershey: IGI Global. doi:10.4018/978-1-60960-479-0.ch003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Borup, J., West, R. E., Graham, C. R., & Davies, R. (2014). The adolescent community of engagement framework: A lens for research on K-12 online learning. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 22(1), 107–129.Google Scholar
  20. Burkhardt, H., & Schoenteld, A. H. (2003). Improving educational research: Toward a more useful, more influential, and better-funded enterprise. Educational Researcher, 32(9), 3–14. doi:10.3102/0013189X032009003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. ChanLin, L. (2007). Perceived importance and manageability of teachers toward the factors of integrating computer technology into classrooms. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 44(1), 45–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ching, C. C., & Hursh, A. W. (2014). Peer modeling and innovation adoption among teachers in online professional development. Computers & Education, 73, 72–82. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2013.12.011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Christensen, C. M., Horn, M. B., & Staker, H. (2013). Is K-12 blended learning disruptive? An introduction of the theory of hybrids. San Mateo: Clayton Christensen Institute. Retrieved from http://www.christenseninstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Is-K-12-Blended-Learning-Disruptive.pdf
  24. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum. doi:10.1234/12345678.Google Scholar
  25. Comas-Quinn, A. (2011). Learning to teach online or learning to become an online teacher: An exploration of teachers’ experiences in a blended learning course. ReCALL, 23(3), 218–232. doi:10.1017/S0958344011000152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Darrow, R., Friend, B., & Powell, A. (2013). A roadmap for implementation of blended learning at the school level. Vienna. Retrieved from http://www.inacol.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/a-roadmap-for-implementation.pdf
  27. Doering, A., Veletsianos, G., Scharber, C., & Miller, C. (2009). Using the technological, pedagogical and content knowledge framework to design online learning environments and professional development. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 41(3), 319–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Drysdale, J. S., Graham, C. R., Spring, K. J., & Halverson, L. R. (2013). Analysis of research trends in dissertations and theses studying blended learning. The Internet and Higher Education, 17(1), 90–100. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2011.03.031.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dziuban, C., & Moskal, P. (2011). A course is a course is a course: Factor invariance in student evaluation of online, blended, and face-to-face learning environments. The Internet and Higher Education, 14, 236–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dziuban, C., Moskal, P., Kramer, L., & Thompson, J. (2013). Student satisfaction with online learning in the presence of ambivalence: Looking for the will-o’-the-wisp. The Internet and Higher Education, 17(1), 1–8. doi:10.1016/j.iheduc.2012.08.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ernest, P., Guitert Catasús, M., Hampel, R., Heiser, S., Hopkins, J., Murphy, L., & Stickler, U. (2013). Online teacher development: Collaborating in a virtual learning environment. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 26(4), 311–333. doi:10.1080/09588221.2012.667814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fisher, J. F. (2014, 28 October). Where’s the person in personalized learning? [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://www.christenseninstitute.org/wheres-the-person-in-personalized-learning/
  33. Fitzpatrick, J., Sanders, J., & Worthen, B. (2011). Program evaluation: Alternative approaches and practical guidelines (4th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.Google Scholar
  34. Garrison, D. R., & Vaughan, N. D. (2007). Blended learning in higher education: Framework, principles, and guidelines. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gibbons, A. S., & Bunderson, C. V. (2005). Explore, explain, design. In K. K. Leonard (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social measurement (pp. 927–938). New York: Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Graham, C. R. (2006). Blended learning systems: Definition, current trends, and future directions. In C. J. Bonk & C. R. Graham (Eds.), Handbook of blended learning: Global perspectives, local designs (pp. 3–21). San Francisco: Pfeiffer Publishing.Google Scholar
  37. Graham, C. R. (2013). Emerging practice and research in blended learning. In M. G. Moore (Ed.), Handbook of distance education (3rd ed., pp. 333–350). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  38. Graham, C. R., & Robison, R. (2007). Realizing the transformational potential of blended learning: Comparing cases of transforming blends and enhancing blends in HE. In A. G. Picciano & C. D. Dziuban (Eds.), Blended learning: Research perspectives (pp. 83–110). Needham: The Sloan Consortium.Google Scholar
  39. Graham, C. R., Henrie, C. R., & Gibbons, A. S. (2014). Developing models and theory for blended learning research. In A. G. Picciano, C. D. Dziuban, & C. R. Graham (Eds.), Blended learning: Research perspectives (Vol. 2, pp. 13–33). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  40. Halverson, L. R., Graham, C. R., Spring, K. J., & Drysdale, J. S. (2012). An analysis of high impact scholarship and publication trends in blended learning. Distance Education, 33(3), 381–413. doi:10.1080/01587919.2012.723166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Halverson, L. R., Graham, C. R., Spring, K. J., Drysdale, J. S., & Henrie, C. R. (2014). A thematic analysis of the most highly cited scholarship in the first decade of blended learning research. The Internet and Higher Education, 20, 20–34. doi:10.1016/j.iheduc.2013.09.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Harms, C. M., Niederhauser, D. S., Davis, N. E., Roblyer, M. D., & Gilbert, S. B. (2006). Educating educators for virtual schooling: Communicating roles and responsibilities. The Electronic Journal of Communication, 16(1 & 2). Retrieved from http://www.cios.org/EJCPUBLIC/016/1/01611.HTML
  43. Heinze, A., & Procter, C. (2006). Online communication and information technology education. Journal of Information Technology Education, 5, 235–249.Google Scholar
  44. Herold, B. (2014). Big districts pressure publishers on digital-content delivery. Education Week, 34(13), 1, 14–15. Retrieved from http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2014/12/03/13techstandards.h34.html
  45. Horn, M. B., Staker, H., Hernandez, A., Hassel, B., & Ableidinger, J. (2011). The rise of K–12 blended learning. Innosight Institute. Retrieved from http://www.christenseninstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/The-rise-of-K-12-blended-learning.pdf
  46. Horn, M., & Staker, H. (2015). Blended: Using disruptive innovation to improve schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  47. Hoxie, A.-M., Stillman, J., & Chesal, K. (2014). Blended learning in new York City: The iLearnNYC program. In A. G. Picciano, C. D. Dziuban, & C. R. Graham (Eds.), Blended learning: Research perspectives (Vol. 2, pp. 304–324). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  48. Humbert, M. (2007). Adoption of blended learning by faculty: An exploratory analysis. In M. K. McCuddy (Ed.), The challenges of educating people to lead in a challenging world (pp. 423–436). Dordrecht: Springer. doi:10.1207/s15327752jpa8502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Jacobs, G. (2008). On-ground faculty intent to teach online courses: An analysis of on-ground faculty perceptions of online course quality and online course workload. TUI University. Retrieved from https://www.lib.byu.edu/cgi-bin/remoteauth.pl?url=http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1542098251&amp
  50. Jayareka, K. S., & Rajamohamed, S. (2015). 3D human computer-intelligent interaction by facial expression analysis using facial action coding system-FACS. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, 6(4), 56–63.Google Scholar
  51. Kaznowska, E., Rogers, J., & Usher, A. (2011). The state of e-learning in Canadian universities, 2011: If students are digital natives, why don’t they like e-learning? (Higher Education Strategy Associates Intelligence Brief 4). Toronto, ON. Retrieved from http://higheredstrategy.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/InsightBrief42.pdf
  52. Keller, J. M. (1984). The use of the ARCS model of motivation in teacher training. In K. E. Shaw (Ed.), Aspects of educational technology, Staff development and career updating (Vol. 17, pp. 140–145). London: Kogan Page.Google Scholar
  53. Kennedy, K., & Archambault, L. (2012). Offering preservice teachers field experiences in K-12 online learning: A national survey of teacher education programs. Journal of Teacher Education, 63, 185–200. doi:10.1177/0022487111433651.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kennedy, K., & Archambault, L. (2013). Partnering for success: A 21st century model for teacher preparation. International Association for K-12 Online Learning (iNACOL). Retrieved from http://www.inacol.org/resource/partnering-for-success-a-21st-century-model-for-teacher-preparation/
  55. Lakoff, G. (1987). Women, fire, and dangerous things: What categories reveal about the mind. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Means, B., Toyama, Y., Murphy, R., Bakia, M., & Jones, K. (2010). Evaluation of evidence-based practices in online learning: A meta-analysis and review of online learning studies. Retrieved from http://www2.ed.gov/rschstat/eval/tech/evidence-based-practices/finalreport.pdf
  57. Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. J. (2006). Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record, 108(6), 1017–1054.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Molnar, A., Huerta, L., Shafer, S. R., Barbour, M. K., Miron, G., & Gulosino, C. (2015). Virtual schools in the U.S. 2015: Politics, performance, policy, and research evidence. Boulder: National Education Policy Center. Retrieved from http://nepc.colorado.edu/publication/virtual-schools-annual-2015.Google Scholar
  59. Molnar, A., Miron, G., Gulosino, C., Shank, C., Davidson, C., Barbour, M.K., Huerta, L., Shafter, S.R., Rice, J.K., & Nitkin, D. (2017). Virtual Schools Report 2017. Boulder, CO: National Education Policy Center. Retrieved [date] from http://nepc.colorado.edu/publication/virtual-schoolsannual-2017
  60. Moore, M. G. (1989). Three types of interaction [editorial]. The American Journal of Distance Education, 3(2), 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Moskal, P. D., & Cavanagh, T. B. (2014). Scaling blended learning evaluation beyond the university. In A. Picciano, C. Dziuban, & C. Graham (Eds.), Blended learning: Research perspectives (Vol. 2, pp. 34–51). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  62. Moskal, P., Dziuban, C., & Hartman, J. (2012). Blended learning: A dangerous idea? The Internet and Higher Education, 18, 15–23. doi:10.1016/j.iheduc.2012.12.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Napier, N. P., Dekhane, S., & Smith, S. (2011). Transitioning to blended learning: Understanding student and faculty perceptions. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 15(1), 20–32. doi:10.1177/009155218701500207.Google Scholar
  64. Norberg, A., Dziuban, C. D., & Moskal, P. D. (2011). A time-based blended learning model. On the Horizon, 19(3), 207–216. doi:10.1108/10748121111163913.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Oh, E., & Park, S. (2009). How are universities involved in blended instruction? Educational Technology & Society, 12(3), 327–342.Google Scholar
  66. Oliver, M. (2000). An introduction to the evaluation of learning technology. Educational Technology and Society, 3(4), 20–30.Google Scholar
  67. Osguthorpe, R. T., & Graham, C. R. (2003). Blended learning environments: Definitions and directions. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 4(3), 227–234.Google Scholar
  68. Ozkan, S., & Koseler, R. (2009). Multi-dimensional students’ evaluation of e-learning systems in the higher education context: An empirical investigation. Computers & Education, 53(4), 1285–1296. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2009.06.011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Patrick, S., Kennedy, K., & Powell, A. (2013). Mean what you say: Defining and integrating personalized, blended and competency education. The International Association for K-12 Online Learning (iNACOL). Retrieved from http://www.inacol.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/mean-what-you-say.pdf
  70. Picciano, A., Dziuban, C., & Graham, C. (2014). Blended learning: Research perspectives (Vol. 2). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  71. Picciano, A. G. (2009). Blending with purpose: The multimodal model. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 13(1), 7–18. Retrieved from http://www.rcetj.org/index.php/rcetj/article/view/11/14.Google Scholar
  72. Picciano, A. G. (2016). Research in online and blended learning: New challenges, new opportunities. In C. Dziuban, A. Picciano, C. Graham, & P. Moskal (Eds.), Conducting research in online and blended learning environments: New pedagogical frontiers (pp. 1–11). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  73. Picciano, A. G., & Seaman, J. (2009). K-12 online learning: A 2008 follow-up of the survey of U.S. school district administrators. Mahwah, NJ. Retrieved from http://www.onlinelearningsurvey.com/reports/k-12-online-learning-2008.pdf
  74. Picciano, A. G., Seaman, J., & Allen, I. E. (2010). Educational transformation through online learning: To be or not to be. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Network, 14(4), 17–35.Google Scholar
  75. Picciano, A. G., Seaman, J., Shea, P., & Swan, K. (2012). Examining the extent and nature of online learning in American K-12 education: The research initiatives of the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. The Internet and Higher Education, 15(2), 127–135. doi:10.1016/j.iheduc.2011.07.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Pombo, L., & Moreira, A. (2012). Evaluation framework for blended learning courses: A puzzle piece for the evaluation process. Contemporary Educational Technology, 3(3), 201–211.Google Scholar
  77. Porter, W. W., Graham, C. R., Spring, K. A., & Welch, K. R. (2014). Blended learning in HE: Institutional adoption and implementation. Computers & Education, 75, 185–195. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2014.02.011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Powell, A., Rabbitt, B., & Kennedy, K. (2014). iNACOL Blended Learning Teacher Competency Framework. Retrieved from https://www.inacol.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/iNACOL-Blended-Learning-Teacher-Competency-Framework.pdf
  79. Puentedura, R. R. (2014). Learning, technology, and the SAMR model: Goals, processes, and practice. Retrieved from http://www.hippasus.com/rrpweblog/archives/2014/06/29/LearningTechnologySAMRModel.pdf
  80. RAND Corporation. (2014) Early progress: Interim research on personalized learning. Seattle: The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Retrieved from http://collegeready.gatesfoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/Early-Progress-on-Personalized-Learning-Full-Report.pdf
  81. Sharpe, R., Benfield, G., Roberts, G., & Francis, R. (2006). The undergraduate experience of blended e-learning: A review of UK literature and practice. York: HE Academy. Retrieved from http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/resources/detail/Teachingandresearch/Undergraduate_Experience.Google Scholar
  82. Shen, Y. W., Reynolds, T. H., Bonk, C. J., & Brush, T. a. (2013). A case study of applying blended learning in an accelerated post-baccalaureate teacher education program. Journal of Educational Technology Development and Exchange, 6(1), 59–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Siemens, G., & Gasevic, D. (2012). Guest editorial – Learning and knowledge analytics. Educational Technology & Society, 15(3), 1–2. doi:10.1207/s15327752jpa8502.Google Scholar
  84. Smart, K. L., & Cappel, J. J. (2006). Students’ perceptions of online learning: A comparative study. Journal of Information Technology Education, 5, 201–219. Retrieved from http://www.informingscience.us/icarus/journals/jiteresearch/publications.Google Scholar
  85. Spring, K. J., & Graham, C. R. (2017). Blended learning citation patterns and publication across seven worldwide regions. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 33(2), 24–50. doi:10.14742/ajet.2632.Google Scholar
  86. Spring, K. J., Graham, C. R., & Hadlock, C. A. (2016). The current landscape of international blended learning. International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning, 8(1), 84–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Staker, H., & Horn, M. B. (2012). Classifying K–12 blended learning. Innosight Institute. Retrieved from http://www.christenseninstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/Classifying-K-12-blended-learning.pdf
  88. Staker, H., & Horn, M. B. (2014). Blended learning in the K-12 education sector. In A. Picciano, C. Dziuban, & C. Graham (Eds.), Blended learning: Research perspectives (Vol. 2, pp. 34–51). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  89. Staker, H., Chan, E., Clayton, M., Hernandez, A., Horn, M. B., & Mackey, K. (2011). The rise of K-12 blended learning: Profiles of emerging models. Innosight Institute. Retrieved from http://www.christenseninstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/The-rise-of-K-12-blended-learning.emerging-models.pdf
  90. Star, S. L., & Griesemer, J. R. (1989). Institutional ecology, “translations” and boundary objects: Amateurs and professionals in Berkeley’s Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, 1907-39. Social Studies of Science, 19(3), 387–420. doi:10.1177/030631289019003001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Tham, R., & Tham, L. (2013). Challenges facing blended learning in higher education in Asia. International Journal on E-Learning, 12(2), 209–219.Google Scholar
  92. Tucker, C. R. (2012). Blended learning in grades 4–12. Thousand Oaks: Corwin.Google Scholar
  93. Twigg, C. A. (2003). Improving learning and reducing costs: New models for online learning. Educause Review, 38(5), 28–38.Google Scholar
  94. U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Technology. (2016, Jan). Future ready learning: Reimagining the role of technology in education. Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://tech.ed.gov/netp/teaching/
  95. Vanderkam, L. (2013). Blended learning: A wise giver’s guide to supporting tech-assisted teaching. Washington, DC: The Philanthropy Roundtable.Google Scholar
  96. Voegele, J. D. (2014). Student perspectives on blended learning through the lens of social, teaching, and cognitive presence. In A. Picciano, C. Dziuban, & C. Graham (Eds.), Blended learning: Research perspectives (Vol. 2) (pp. 93–103). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  97. Watson, J. (2008). Blended learning: The convergence of online and face-to-face education. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED509636.pdf
  98. Watson, J., Murin, A., Vashaw, L., Gemin, B., & Rapp, C. (2010). Keeping pace with K-12 online learning: An annual review of policy and practice. Evergreen Education Group. Retrieved from http://www.kpk12.com/wp-content/uploads/KeepingPaceK12_2010.pdf
  99. Watson, J., Murin, A., Vashaw, L., Gemin, B., & Rapp, C. (2013). Keeping pace with K-12 online and blended learning: An annual review of policy and practice. Evergreen Education Group. Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/recordDetail?accno=ED535910
  100. Watson, J., Pape, L., Murin, A., Gemin, B., & Vashaw, L. (2014). Keeping pace with K–12 digital learning: An annual review of policy and practice (11th ed.). Retrieved from http://www.kpk12.com/wp-content/uploads/EEG_KP2014-fnl-lr.pdf
  101. Wegmann, S. J., & Thompson, K. (2014). SCOPE-ing out interactions in blended environments. In A. Picciano, C. Dziuban, & C. Graham (Eds.), Blended learning: Research perspectives (Vol. 2, pp. 73–92). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  102. Wolf, P. D. (2006). Best practices in the training of faculty to teach online. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 17(2), 47–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Woods, R., Baker, J. D., & Hopper, D. (2004). Hybrid structures: Faculty use and perception of web-based courseware as a supplement to face-to-face instruction. The Internet and Higher Education, 7, 281–297. doi:10.1016/j.iheduc.2004.09.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Zimmerman, T. D. (2012). Exploring learner to content interaction as a success factor in online courses. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 13(4), 152–165.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lisa R. Halverson
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kristian J. Spring
    • 1
  • Sabrina Huyett
    • 2
  • Curtis R. Henrie
    • 1
  • Charles R. Graham
    • 1
  1. 1.Instructional Psychology & TechnologyBrigham Young UniversityProvoUSA
  2. 2.Teacher EducationBrigham Young UniversityProvoUSA

Personalised recommendations