Gamification in Open and Distance Learning: A Systematic Review

  • Murat SümerEmail author
  • Cengiz Hakan Aydın
Living reference work entry


Gamification defined as the use of game design elements in nongame contexts or is the integration of game elements, mechanics, and frameworks into nongame situations and scenarios (Horizon Report, 2013). It, so far, has most frequently been used as a clever way to promote a business or product. Besides using gamification in business, there are also examples in education, for example, where in most real cases it is implemented only in the physical classroom. This is the easy way for teachers to integrate game elements for a small group of learners. However, to digitizing the gamification strategy or placing the related mechanisms online is very different, and such issues tend to be not discussed in many of the basic guidelines (Kuo and Chuang, Comput Hum Behav 55:16–27, 2016).

This chapter intends to reveal the answer of the questions of (1) which game elements and combinations have been mostly used in the field of open and distance learning, (2) what the distributions of the studies according to the publication type and year are, (3) what the level of studies according to the target audiences (elementary, secondary, higher, and lifelong) are, and (4) what the common findings say. The answers will provide an overview of the research on gamification in Open and Distance Learning. Moreover, the study will be a guideline for the institutes and provide practical information to integrate game elements to online programs successfully.


Gamification Open and distance learning e-Learning Systematic literature review Mapping study 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer Education and Instructional TechnologyUşak UniversityMerkez, UşakTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Distance EducationAnadolu UniversityTepebaşı, EskişehirTurkey

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