Living Reference Work Entry

Handbook of Gynecology

pp 1-7

Date: Latest Version

Diagnosis and Management of Postmenopausal Bleeding

  • Trevin C. LauAffiliated withMassachusetts General Hospital Email author 
  • , Lisa B. SpirydaAffiliated withObstetrics and Gynecology, University of Florida, College of Medicine


Postmenopausal bleeding refers to any uterine bleeding that occurs after a woman reaches menopause and accounts for up to 5 % of gynecological office visits. Excluding an endometrial malignancy is the key component to the work-up. Ultimately, the management of these patients is dictated by the diagnosis. The differential diagnosis ranges from gynecologic causes to non-gynecologic causes, including urologic and gastrointestinal etiologies.


Postmenopausal bleeding Endometrial hyperplasia Endometrial cancer Endometrial polyp Urogenital atrophy Endometrial biopsy Transvaginal ultrasound Endometrial thickness