Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science

Living Edition
| Editors: Todd K. Shackelford, Viviana A. Weekes-Shackelford


  • Sylis Claire Alexandra NicolasEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-16999-6_446-1



Sexism is discrimination or prejudice directed toward an individual based on his or her gender or sex.


Women and girls tend to be recognized as the primary victims of sexism across cultures. For example, worldwide, women earn less, have less representation in politics, lower participation in the labor force, and receive less education than their male counterparts (United Nations Development Programme 2015). However, men and boys are also affected by sexism. For instance, men are more likely to be the victims of corporal punishment, capital punishment, aggression, violence, have higher mortality rates, and are less likely to gain child custody (see Benatar 2012).

Contemporary social movements such as feminismseek to eliminate inequality between the sexes in employment, education, politics, social roles, and reduce the occurrence of sexual coercion and violence that disproportionately...


Intimate Partner Sexual Violence Romantic Partner Corporal Punishment Sexual Victimization 
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Oakland UniversityRochesterUSA