Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science

Living Edition
| Editors: Todd K. Shackelford, Viviana A. Weekes-Shackelford


  • Ossi Nokelainen
  • Bibiana Rojas
  • Janne K. Valkonen
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-16999-6_2665-1



A phenomenon whereby organisms avoid detection or recognition by resembling the general background or specific objects therein.


Camouflage is a phenomenon, which hides or prevents something from being noticed. As an umbrella term, it covers all strategies involved in concealment including prevention of detection and recognition (Stevens and Merilaita 2009). Camouflage exists across many biological taxa and provides among the most remarkable examples of adaptation. For example, cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) can adjust their appearance in terms of color and patterning to match their respective visual habitat, but also change their shape to increase resemblance to natural objects such as coral, stones, or seaweed (Hanlon et al. 2009). Likewise grouse, ground-dwelling birds, avoid being seen by potential predators by closely resembling the background on which they nest (Thayer 1896). Despite being an ubiquitous anti-predator strategy...


Nest Survival Background Match Protective Coloration Pepper Moth Dark Morph 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ossi Nokelainen
    • 1
  • Bibiana Rojas
    • 1
  • Janne K. Valkonen
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre of Excellence in Biological Interactions, Department of Biological and Environmental ScienceUniversity of JyväskyläJyväskyläFinland

Section editors and affiliations

  • Russell Jackson
    • 1
  1. 1.University of IdahoMoscowUSA