Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science

Living Edition
| Editors: Todd K. Shackelford, Viviana A. Weekes-Shackelford


  • Katherine BrophyEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-16999-6_2441-1



Conditions that inhibit the learning educational material and/or social interaction with peers in the classroom.


In 1975, Congress passed the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Originally called the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, IDEA mandates the provision of a free and appropriate public school education for eligible students ages 3–21. The primary goals from IDEA is to protect the rights of children with disabilities, and to give parents a voice in their child’s education. Children that have a disability that need special education and related services also receive a Free and Appropriate Public Education (FAPE). FAPE believes that students with disabilities are entitled to an education that is appropriate for them, and must be provided to every eligible school-age child with a disability. All students with disabilities who are eligible for FAPE will be educated at the public expense, and FAPE will also be...

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  1. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2017). Social communication disorders in school-age children. Retrieved from: http://www.asha.org/Practice-Portal/Clinical-Topics/Social-Communication-Disorders-in-School-Age-Children/
  2. Cortiella, C., & Horowitz, S. H. (2014). The state of learning disabilities: Facts, trends and emerging issues (3rd ed.). New York: National Center for Learning Disabilities.Google Scholar
  3. Learning Disabilities Association of American. (2017). Types of learning disabilities. Retrieved from: https://ldaamerica.org/types-of-learning-disabilities/
  4. Morrison, G. M., & Cosden, M. A. (1997). Risk, resilience, and adjustment of individuals with learning disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 20(1), 43–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. National Center for Educational Statistics. (2017). The condition of education: Children and youth with disabilities. Retrieved from: https://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/indicator_cgg.asp

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG (outside the USA) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of South Carolina – BeaufortBlufftonUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Carey Fitzgerald
    • 1
  1. 1.University of South Carolina - BeaufortBlufftonUSA