Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science

Living Edition
| Editors: Todd K. Shackelford, Viviana A. Weekes-Shackelford

Social Development

  • Darcia Narvaez
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-16999-6_2394-1



Children develop their sociality according to propensities for cooperation and from their family and community experiences. In precivilized societies, social development occurs naturally as children learn the ways of the community through informal apprenticeship. In civilized societies, social development often involves “socialization,” as adults coercively teach children how to behave.


We can contrast two basic forms of societies: civilized and pre- or un-civilized. Civilization has been around for about 10,000 years (about 1% of human genus history). Civilized societies are those that domesticate and control the lives of animals and plants to their own benefit, hoarding resources and constructing hierarchies to keep the social system of controlling resources in place. Civilized nations have been successful technologically but destructive of earth life and biocultural systems...

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Notre DameNotre DameUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Carey Fitzgerald
    • 1
  1. 1.University of South Carolina – BeaufortBlufftonUSA