Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science

Living Edition
| Editors: Todd K. Shackelford, Viviana A. Weekes-Shackelford


  • Emily H. EmmottEmail author
  • Abigail E. Page
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-16999-6_2253-1



Caregiving by nonparental caregivers, who provide direct and/or indirect investments to a child


Who helped you develop into the person you are today? Most of us may think about a parent or parents, but many of us would also recognize the important role of other people. Perhaps it’s a teacher, a grandparent, or a neighborhood friend. The fact that we are supported by many people in our childhood is, in fact, very unusual: In nonhuman mammals, support – or investments – for juveniles are typically and solely provided by the biological mother. Only 9–10% of mammals display parental care, where biological fathers are additionally involved in raising offspring, without the support of other helpers (Kleiman and Malcolm 1981). In humans, we see a notably different system of facultative fathering, where biological fathers may or may not provide investments into their...

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.UCL AnthropologyUniversity College LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.Department of Population HealthLondon School of Hygiene and Tropical MedicineLondonUK

Section editors and affiliations

  • Kevin M. Kniffin
    • 1
  1. 1.Cornell UniversityIthacaUSA