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Effects of Knee Osteoarthritis and Joint Replacement Surgery on Gait

  • Cheryl L. Hubley-Kozey
  • Janie Astephen Wilson
Reference work entry

Abstract

Knee joint osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common condition that is managed with knee joint replacement surgery. Gait has provided a model to study knee OA processes as knee joint function is altered in the presence of knee OA including joint level angular motions, joint level moments, and muscle activation patterns during walking. In the pre-total joint arthroplasty state, there is significant joint damage and severe symptoms (pain) that manifest as altered musculoskeletal function during walking. These alterations in joint and muscle function during gait can be accurately quantified with state-of-the-art surface motion capture systems, force plates, biomechanical modeling, and surface electromyography to capture muscle activation patterns. This chapter provides an overview of the gait biomechanics and EMG studies related to (i) knee joint OA processes and (ii) knee joint replacement surgery. The summary and conclusions provide ideas on future directions suggesting that human movement studies need to be better integrated in clinical musculoskeletal practice to provide the quantitative measures of function that can inform clinical decision making.

Keywords

Knee Arthroplasty Knee Osteoarthritis Gait Biomechanics Joint Function Muscle Function Electromyography 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cheryl L. Hubley-Kozey
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Janie Astephen Wilson
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Health ProfessionsDalhousie UniversityHalifaxCanada
  2. 2.School of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of MedicineDalhousie UniversityHalifaxCanada
  3. 3.Nova Scotia Health AuthorityHalifaxCanada

Section editors and affiliations

  • Freeman Miller
    • 1
  • Sebastian I. Wolf
    • 2
  1. 1.duPont Hospital for ChildrenWilmingtonUSA
  2. 2.Movement Analysis LaboratoryClinic for Orthopedics and Trauma Surgery; Center for Orthopedics, Trauma Surgery and Spinal Cord Injury;Heidelberg University HospitalHeidelbergGermany

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