Prosthetic Foot Principles and Their Influence on Gait

  • Andrew Hansen
  • Felix Starker
Reference work entry


This chapter describes mechanical properties of prosthetic feet and their effects on level gait of persons with amputations. These descriptions focus on recent literature and knowledge gained from controlled studies of different properties including stiffness/flexibility, damping, roll-over characteristics, active push-off in late stance phase, and toe clearance during swing phase. The chapter also discusses future directions in prosthetic foot research, including the need for both amputee-independent measurements combined with clinical trials. Specific approaches to future studies of prosthetic feet are proposed that could further our knowledge base and ultimately lead to improved prescription of prosthetic feet for persons with amputations.


Prosthetic Stiffness Flexibility Damping Heel Toe Mechanical properties Push-off Toe clearance Roll-over shape Research Amputation 


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Copyright information

© This is a U.S. Government work and not under copyright protection in the US; foreign copyright protection may apply 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Minneapolis VA Health Care SystemMinneapolisUSA
  2. 2.University of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA
  3. 3.Biomechatronic SystemsFraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Engineering and AutomationStuttgartGermany

Section editors and affiliations

  • Sebastian I. Wolf
    • 1
  1. 1.Movement Analysis LaboratoryClinic for Orthopedics and Trauma Surgery; Center for Orthopedics, Trauma Surgery and Spinal Cord Injury;Heidelberg University HospitalHeidelbergGermany

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