Upper Extremity Models for Clinical Movement Analysis

  • Andrea Giovanni Cutti
  • Ilaria Parel
  • Andrea Kotanxis
Reference work entry


The quantitative analysis of upper-extremity motion is a challenging task. A single, universally accepted methodology does not exist, but it is possible to define a standardized way to report a measurement protocol and to formulate recommendations on the most important aspect. The aim of this chapter is to provide such guidelines, addressing common issues such as joint modeling, scapula tracking, soft-tissue artifact compensation, and summary of results.


Upper-extremity Shoulder Scapula Elbow Functional axis Motion analysis Kinematics Optoelectronic system Inertial sensors Protocol Measurement methods Scapulo-humeral rhythm Marker-set Coordinate system Anatomical landmarks Functional frames Cluster Skin artifacts 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrea Giovanni Cutti
    • 1
  • Ilaria Parel
    • 2
  • Andrea Kotanxis
    • 3
  1. 1.Applied Research, INAIL Prosthetic CenterVigorso di BudrioItaly
  2. 2.Unit of Shoulder and Elbow SurgeryCervesi HospitalCattolicaItaly
  3. 3.Leon Root Motion Analysis LaboratoryHospital for Special SurgeryNew YorkUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Sebastian I. Wolf
    • 1
  1. 1.Movement Analysis LaboratoryClinic for Orthopedics and Trauma Surgery; Center for Orthopedics, Trauma Surgery and Spinal Cord Injury;Heidelberg University HospitalHeidelbergGermany

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